18th Century British Literature - University - Research Paper

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18th century literature
REGISTRATION NO: 170214 OF 2017-2018
Novelists in 18th Century
(a) Major Novelists
(b) Minor Novelists
Poets in 18th Century
(a) Major Poets
(b) Minor Poets
Prose writers in 18th Century
Essayists and Non-Fiction Prose writers in 18th Century
Dramatists and Playwrights in 18th Century
The period from 1660—when the English crown was restored as Charles II became king —to 1800 saw the vast transformation of English society and English politics as well as significant developments within English literature. Politically, the era followed nearly two decades of civil unrest and war. The return of the monarchy left many questions unanswered in terms of the king’s power versus that of Parliament. While Charles II largely avoided the conflicts that might have brought the issue to a head, his successor, his brother James II, soon fell into trouble with Parliament in his attempt to strengthen the power of the Catholic Church. In 1688, Parliament deposed James, replacing him with his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband, the Dutch William. In the process, through what has been called the Glorious Revolution, Parliament secured its authority. While James’s son and grandson would threaten this settlement in the 18th century, the Glorious Revolution helped to initiate the modern system of limited monarchical power and led to the passage of England’s Bill of Rights.
In the field of literature, the Restoration and the eighteenth century are often characterized in terms of neoclassicism. While this course will explore neoclassicism in more depth later in this unit, we can outline some of the chief features of neoclassicism here. The classicism in neoclassicism derived from many thinkers’ and authors’ sense that the best models for literature came from the classical era, specifically from the Roman Augustan writers Horace, Virgil, and Ovid. Thus, while most writers of this era strove to make their works conform to nature, as did the preceding writers of the Renaissance and the romantics who followed, they thought that the rules and methods discovered by prior great artists provided the best route for doing so. Underlying that idea was a sense that human nature—and the art that attempted to capture it—was the same across time and space. The rules of art for one era, then, should be the same for any era. In keeping with this more conservative orientation towards literary innovation, English neoclassicism tended to stress balance and restraint and the correct and limited use of figurative language in terms of technique, and the depiction of general cases over the idiosyncratic or unusual in terms of theme and content.
These ideals reiterated a broader philosophical emphasis on the limits of human knowledge and certain scepticism about metaphysical questions. This literature tended to be very social in focus, attending to human flaws and attempting to correct them through satire, rather than celebrating or revealing a striving to exceed previous standards or ideals. This attitude can be summed up in the idea of decorum, of language and character keeping to within long-held standards. Literary historians sometimes break up this era into three periods, the Age of Dryden, from 1660 to John Dryden’s death in 1700, when English neoclassicism was being established; the Age of Pope and Swift, from 1700 to their deaths in 1744-45, when neoclassicism fully flowered; and the Age of Johnson, from 1744-45 until his death in 1784, when neoclassicism began to be more fully challenged by a variety of ideas and attitudes, including the rise of the novel as a popular form, the development of sentimentalism as a literary and philosophical movement, and the increasing optimism of Enlightenment thought. This unit (and the unit on the novel which follows) will complicate this outline of the era, but we can use it as basic guide for delineating some broad trends.
During the Age of Dryden, the Restoration and the years immediately following the Glorious Revolution, literary culture was largely centered on the court. Patronage from aristocratic families remained the primary source of income for writers, and their subjects and attitudes reflected their attachment to the court. This age is particularly known for its witty and ribald drama, plays that displayed and sometimes satirized the debauched behaviour of the upper classes. Reaction against Restoration excess set in the 1690s, and the cynical comedy of manners began to fade. With the turn of the century, Enlightenment thought began to take more prominence and with it came an increasing optimism about human nature and the potential to reform human shortcomings.
The Age of Pope and Swift that followed can be seen as marking a shift in the literary culture from the court to the coffee house, as these important social centres began to become central meeting places for politicians and writers. Many of the great writers of this era were directly engaged with politics, and satire became one of the central features of the age. It was also the age that gave rise to some of the most important journalistic literature in English history, most notably Addison and Steele’s Spectator, which helped to establish a certain moral pose as well as restrained style as the model for the century that would follow. These authors were now writing for a broader audience, in part because patronage from the court and the aristocracy began to disappear and writers increasingly depended on publishers and the marketplace for their livelihood. With the middle of the century, many of these changes led to new and varied literary forms, in particular forms such as the novel that focused more squarely on the individual and his or her feelings and experience. At the same time, thought, neoclassical ideals, as espoused most fully by Samuel Johnson, continued to reign.
NOVELISTS IN 18th century
1. Daniel Defoe (1660–24 April 1731), born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer and spy. He is most famous for his novel Robinson Crusoe, which is second only to the Bible in its number of translations.  Defoe wrote many political tracts and often was in trouble with the authorities, including a spell in prison. Intellectuals and political leaders paid attention to his fresh ideas and sometimes consulted with him. Defoe was a prolific and versatile writer, producing more than three hundred work—books, pamphlets, and journals—on diverse topics, including politics, crime, religion, marriage, psychology, and the supernatural. He was also a pioneer of business journalism and economic journalism. His other notable works in this field include: Robinson Crusoe (1719), Captain Singleton (1720), Memoirs of a Cavalier (1720), A Journal of the Plague Year (1722), Colonel Jack (1722), Moll Flanders (1722), Roxana: The Fortunate Mistress (1724).
2. Samuel Richardson (baptised 19 August 1689 – 4 July 1761) was an English writer and printer. He is best known for his three epistolary novels: Pamela; or, Virtue Rewarded (1740), Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady (1748) and The History of Sir Charles Grandison (1753). Richardson was an established printer and publisher for most of his life and printed almost 500 different works, including journals and magazines. He was also known to collaborate closely with the London bookseller Andrew Millar on several occasions. His other less notable works include: Pamela in her Exalted Condition (1741–1761), Letters and Passages Restored to Clarissa (1751), The History of Mrs. Beaumont – A Fragment (unfinished).
3. Henry Fielding (22 April 1707 – 8 October 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich, earthy humour and satirical prowess, and as the author of the picaresque novel Tom Jones. Additionally, he holds a significant place in the history of law enforcement, having used his authority as a magistrate to found (with his half-brother John) what some have called London's first police force, the Bow Street Runners. His list of novels consists of Shamela – novella (1741), The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews and his Friend, Mr. Abraham Abrams (1742), The Life and Death of Jonathan Wild, the Great (1743), The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (1749), A Journey from this World to the Next (1749), Amelia (1751).
4. Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. He is regarded by the Encyclopædia Britannica as the foremost prose satirist in the English language, and is less well known for his poetry. He originally published all of his works under pseudonyms – such as Lemuel Gulliver, Isaac Bickerstaff, M. B. Drapier – or anonymously. He was a master of two styles of satire, the Horatian and Juvenalian styles. His deadpan, ironic writing style, particularly in A Modest Proposal, has led to such satire being subsequently termed "Swiftian". Swift is remembered for works such as A Tale of a Tub (1704), An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity (1712), Gulliver's Travels (1726), and A Modest Proposal (1729). But some of his other works include Journal to Stella (1766), The conduct of allies (1711).
5. Horatio Walpole (24 September 1717 – 2 March 1797), known as Horace Walpole, was an English writer, art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician. Walpole additionally wrote The Mysterious Mother (1768), a tragedy about incest that Samuel Taylor Coleridge called “the most disgusting, detestable, vile composition that ever came from the hand of man". His other notable works include: Some Anecdotes of Painting in England (1762), The Castle of Otranto (1764), The Mysterious Mother (1768), Historic Doubts on the Life and Reign of Richard III (1768), On Modern Gardening (1780), A Description of the Villa of Mr. Horace Walpole (1784), Hieroglyphic Tales (1785).
1. Sarah Fielding (8 November 1710 – 9 April 1768):
· The Adventures of David Simple, 1744
· Familiar Letters between the Principal Characters in David Simple, 1747
· The Governess, or The Little Female Academy, 1749
· Remarks on "Clarissa", 1749
· David Simple: Volume the Last, 1753
· The Cry: A New Dramatic Fable (with Jane Collier), 1754
· The Lives of Cleopatra and Octavia, 1757
· The History of the Countess of Dellwyn, 1759
· The History of Ophelia, 1761
· Xenophon's Memoirs of Socrates, with the Defense of Socrates Before His Judges,1762
2. Frances Burney (13 June 1752 – 6 January 1840), also known as Fanny Burney: 
· The History of Caroline Evelyn, 1767
· Evelina: Or The History of A Young Lady's Entrance into the World. London, 1778
· Cecilia: Or, Memoirs of an Heiress. London, 1782
· Camilla: Or, A Picture of Youth. London, 1796
· The Wanderer: Or, Female Difficulties. London: Longmans, 1814
3. Charlotte Lennox, née Ramsay (c. 1730 – 4 January 1804):
· The Life of Harriot Stuart (1751)
· The Female Quixote (1752)
· Henrietta (1758)
· Sophia (1762)
· Eliza (1766)
· Euphemia (1790)
· Hermione (1791)
4. Matthew Gregory Lewis (9 July 1775 – 14 or 16 May 1818):
· The Effusions of Sensibility (unfinished)
· Ambrosio, or, The Monk: A Romance (3 volumes) (1796, revised 1798)
· The Bravo of Venice (1805)
5. Laurence Sterne (24 November 1713 – 18 March 1768):
·  The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (1759)
· A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy (1768)
6. Ann Radcliffe ( 9 July 1764 – 7 February 1823)
· The Castles of Athlin and Dunbayne (1 vol.) 1789
· A Sicilian Romance (2 vols) 1790
· The Romance of the Forest (3 vols) 1791
· The Mysteries of Udolpho (4 vols) 1794
· The Italian (3 vols) 1797
Poets in 18th century
1. Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) was an 18th-century English poet. He is best known for his satirical verses. Pope's work was, full of references to the people and places of his time, and these aided people's understanding of the past. The post-war period stressed the power of Pope's poetry, recognising that Pope's immersion in Christian and Biblical culture lent depth to his poetry. Although there are numerous poems by Pope but his major works include:
· An Essay on Criticism (1711)
· Messiah (1712)
· The Rape of the Lock (1712)
· Windsor Forest (1713)
· The Temple of Fame: A Vision (1715)
· Elegy to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady (1717)
· Peri Bathous, Or the Art of Sinking in Poetry (1727)
· The Dunciad (1728)
· Essay on Man (1733–1734)
· The Prologue to the Satires (1735)
2. Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 1772 – 25 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets. His critical work, especially on William Shakespeare, was highly influential, and he helped introduce German idealist philosophy to English-speaking culture. Coleridge coined many familiar words and phrases, including ‘suspension of disbelief’. He is famous for his poems like The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (1798), Christable (1797) and Kubla Khan (1797). But he was also the poet who started conversational poems being:
· The Eolian Harp (1795)
· Reflections on having left a Place of Retirement (1795)
· This Lime-Tree Bower my Prison (1797)
· Frost at Midnight (1798)
· Fears in Solitude (1798)
· The Nightingale: A Conversation Poem (1798)
· Dejection: An Ode (1802)
· To William Wordsworth (1807)
3. Thomas Gray (26 December 1716 – 30 July 1771) was an English poet, letter-writer, classical scholar, and professor at College, Cambridge. Gray was an extremely critical writer who published only 13 poems in his lifetime, despite being very popular. He was even offered the position of Poet Laureate in 1757, though he declined. Few of his works are:
· Ode on the Spring (1748)
· Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat (1748)
· Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College (1747)
· Hymn to Adversity (1753)
· The Progress of Poesy (1757)
· The Bard: A Pindaric Ode (1757)
· The Fatal Sister: An Ode (1761)
· The Descent of Odin: An Ode (1761)
· The Triumphs of Owen: An Fragment (1764)
· Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard (1751)
4. Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr. Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, playwright, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer. He was a devout Anglican and a generous philanthropist. He is the subject of James Boswell's The Life of Samuel Johnson, described by Walter Jackson Bate as "the most famous single work of biographical art in the whole of literature". His contribution in the field of poetry are as follows:
· Messiah, a translation into Latin of Alexander Pope's Messiah (1728)
· London(1738)
· Prologue at the Opening of the Theatre in Drury Lane (1747)
· The Vanity of Human Wishes (1749)
· Irene, a Tragedy
5. Anne Finch (April 1661 – 5 August 1720), was an English poet and courtier. Finch's works often express a desire for respect as a female poet, lamenting her difficult position as a woman in the literary establishment and the court, while writing of "political ideology, religious orientation, and aesthetic sensibility". Her works also allude to other female authors of the time, such as Aphra Behn and Katherine Phillips. Through her commentary on the mental and spiritual equality of the genders and the importance of women fulfilling their potential as a moral duty to themselves and to society, she is regarded as one of the integral female poets of the Restoration Era.
Finch’s works include:
· Adam Posed
· The Answer
· Friendship between Ephelia and Ardelia
· The Introduction
· A Letter to Daphnis
· A Nocturnal Reverie
· On Myself
· A Song
· The Spleen
· To Death
· To the Nightingale
· The Tree
1. John Gay (30 June 1685 – 4 December 1732):
· Wine (1708)
· The Present State of Wit (1711)
· The Rural Sports (1713)
· The Shepherd's Week (1714)
· The What D'ye Call It – 1715
· Trivia, or The Art of Walking the Streets of London (1716)
· Poems on Several Occasions (1720)
· Fables (1727) [Part the Second – 1738]
· The Distress'd Wife (1743)
2. Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745):
· Baucis and Philemon (1706)
· The Humble Petition of Frances Harris (1701)
· The History of Vanbrugh’s House (1708)
· Prometheus, A Poem (1724)
· The Seventh Epistle of the First Book of Horace Imitated
· Toland’s Invitation to Dismal (1712)
· Phyllis: or; The Progress of Love (1716)
3. William Collins (25 December 1721 – 12 June 1759):
· Persian Eclogues (1742)
· Verses Humbly Address’d to Sir Thomas Hanmer (1743)
· Odes on Several Descriptive and Allegoric Subjects (1746)
· Eclogue the Second: HASSAN; or, the Camel-driver.
· Ode on the Poetical Character
· An Ode on the Popular Superstitions of the Highlands (1749)
4. Oliver Goldsmith(10 November 1728 – 4 April 1774)
· Traveller, or, a Prospect of Society (1764)
· An Elegy on the Death of a Mad Dog (1766)
· The Deserted Village: A Poem (1770).
5. William Cowper (26 November 1731 – 25 April 1800):
· God Moves in A Mysterious Way (1773)
· The Nightingale and the Glow-worm
· Mourning and Longing
· The Task
· The Negro’s Complaint
· The Castaway
· On the Receipt of My Mother’s Picture
· The Diverting History of John Gilpin
PROSE WRITERS IN 18th century
1. Daniel Defoe is a good prose writer as well as the first English journalist. He began to publish the early London newspaper The Review and ran it for nine years. He has finely described the Great Plague in London in his Journal of the Plague Year (1722). Robinson Crusoe is his famous work. It is a story based on the real events of a sailor who quarrelled with his captain and was left alone on an island for four years. Two famous writers as well as journalists Richard Steel and Joseph Addison worked together in publishing the newspaper like The Tatler and The Spectator. They wrote many famous and good essays on various subjects and published in their newspaper. They also wrote actions of imaginary characters. Their works written in pure and simple English helped much to the development of the novel.
2. Jonathan Swift was the greatest English satirist. He has written many bitter satirical works which severely attack the social evils and human wickedness. He wrote The Battle of the Books in favour of ancient writers. His Tale of Tub attacks on religious ideas. Swift wrote his famous satire, A Modest Proposal in order to attack the injustice of English rulers to the poverty of Irish people. Gulliver’s Travels is the most popular satire of Swift. It is very popular among the young children as a beautiful story. It is written in four books. It contains the accounts of an English captain Gulliver’s adventurous voyage to different imaginary places like Lilliput and Brobdingnag. There are many strange and unusual descriptions in it. It powerfully attacks on man’s wickedness and stupidity.
3. Dr. Samuel Johnson was another famous literary personality of this period, who wrote all sorts of literary works because of his poverty. He compiled a Dictionary and published it into five times in his lifetime. It was his famous and major work. His Lives of the Poets is a critical work which he wrote carefully and obviously towards the later part of his life. He also wrote a kind of novel entitled Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia. Apart from this, he wrote many essays on various subjects.
4. Edward Gibbon wrote The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire in six books. It is the greatest historical work in English literature which covers the events of thirteen centuries and relates the ancient to the modern world. It is written in splendid prose and is clear, complete and usually correct. It deals with various religious, Roman law, Persian politics, the attacks of uncivilized tribes and many other affairs.
5. Edmund Broke was mainly famous for his fine oratorical prose. His works Speech on American Taxation, Speech on Conciliation with America and Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol contain some of his best speeches. He was always in favour of people’s freedom and hated the slavery and cruelty of the government. Being related to the parliament, he gave many speeches. Later in his life, he wrote Reflections on the French Revolution. It made him famous in all parts of Europe.
Essayists and Non-fiction writers in 18th century
1. Joseph Addison (1 May 1672 – 17 June 1719): It is as an essayist that Addison is remembered today. Addison began writing essays quite casually. In April 1709, his childhood friend Richard Steele started The Tatler. Addison contributed 42 essays to the Tatler while Steele wrote 188. Regarding Addison's help, Steele remarked, "when I had once called him in, I could not subsist without dependence on him".[11] On 2 January 1711, The Tatler was discontinued. On 1 March 1711, The Spectator was published, and it continued until 6 December 1712. The Spectatorwas issued daily and achieved great popularity. It exercised an influence over the reading public of the time. Addison soon became the leading partner in The Spectator. He contributed 274 essays out a total of 635; Steele wrote 236. Addison also assisted Steele with the Guardian, which began in 1713.
2. Edmund Burke (12 January 1729 – 9 July 1797) was an British statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party. Burke was a proponent of underpinning virtues with manners in society and of the importance of religious institutions for the moral stability and good of the state. These views were expressed in his A Vindication of Natural Society. Burke criticized British treatment of the American colonies, including through its taxation policies. He also supported the rights of the colonists to resist metropolitan authority, though he opposed the attempt to achieve independence. Burke is remembered for his support for Catholic emancipation, the impeachment of Warren Hastings from the East India Company and for his staunch opposition to the French Revolution. In his Reflections on the Revolution in France, Burke asserted that the revolution was destroying the fabric of good society and traditional institutions of state and society, and condemned the persecution of the Catholic Church that resulted from it. This led to his becoming the leading figure within the conservative faction of the Whig Party, which he dubbed the "Old Whigs", as opposed to the pro-French Revolution "New Whigs", led by Charles James Fox.
3. Sir Richard Steele (12 March 1672 – 1 September 1729) was an Irish writer, playwright, and politician, remembered as co-founder, with his friend Joseph Addison, of the magazine The Tatler. The Tatler, Steele's first journal, first came out on 12 April 1709, and appeared three times a week: on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. Steele wrote this periodical under the pseudonym Isaac Bickerstaff and gave Bickerstaff an entire, fully developed personality. Steele described his motive in writing The Tatler as "to expose the false arts of life, to pull off the disguises of cunning, vanity, and affectation, and to recommend a general simplicity in our dress, our discourse, and our behavior". Steele founded the magazine, and although he and Addison collaborated, Steele wrote the majority of the essays; Steele wrote roughly 188 of the 271 total and Addison 42, with 36 representing the pair's collaborative works. While Addison contributed to The Tatler, it is widely regarded as Steele's work. The Tatler was closed down to avoid the complications of running a Whig publication that had come under Tory attack. Addison and Steele then founded The Spectator in 1711 and also the Guardian in 1713.
4. Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709 [7 September] – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr. Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, playwright, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer. He was a devout Anglican and a generous philanthropist.[1] Politically, he was a committed Tory. His essays, pamphlets, periodicals and sermons which became a important contribution to literature include: Birmingham Journal (1732–33), Plan for a Dictionary of the English Language (1747), The Rambler (1750–52), The Adventurer (1753–54), Universal Visiter (1756), The Literary Magazine, or Universal Review (1756), The Idler (1758–60), The False Alarm (1770), Thoughts on the Late Transactions Respecting Falkland's Islands (1771), The Patriot (1774), A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland (1775), The Beauties of Johnson (1781).
Dramatists and playwrights of 18th century
1. William Congreve, often recognized for his excellence and skill in writing comedy, was born in 1670 in Bardsey, West Yorkshire. Congreve stepped into the theater spotlight with his breakout success The Old Bachelor in 1692. Specializing in a more raucous form of promiscuous comedy, he would go on to produce a wide range of successful plays during the final decade of the seventeenth century. His 1697 production, The Mourning Bride, was a change from the otherwise comedic nature of his works. The only tragedy that he would produce during his career, The Mourning Bride met with good reception and would go on to coin several famous phrases, including “Hell hath no fury like a woman’s scorn (“William Congreve”).” Congreve’s career would be short-lived, however, as audience preferences began to shift away from the “comedy of manners” style towards the end of the Restoration. His final play, The Way of the World, was composed in 1700 in response to a particularly vehement critique of his former works. With this comedy, Congreve returned to the early style of the Restoration comedies in an attempt to justify his own prowess, and in the process created one of the best comedies to emerge during the Restoration era (Young).
2. George Farquhar was another late arrival to the Restoration scene. Born in 1677, Farquhar began writing for the theatre in 1698 where he finished his first play, Love and a Bottle, at age 20. His most notable works were The Recruiting Officer and The Beaux’ Stratagem, composed in 1706 and 1707, respectively. The latter was written during the final months of his life at the behest of a close friend, and would go on to become his most renowned play. Farquhar is best known for his roguish humour and rakish characters, as well as his witty dialogue and light atmosphere (NNDB).
4. William Wycherley was born in 1640 and created plays during the height of the Restoration. His works were best known for their wit and high spirits, as well as lewd undertones and fast plots that audiences of the time desired most. The Country Wife, written in 1675, is a piece that in many ways represents the vast majority of the comedies produced during the Restoration. The play features an overtly sexual pun in its very title, as well as robust language and devious character motives that, while popular at the time, have often prevented it from being performed in a more modern setting (Wycherley).
5. Susanna Centlivre (c. 1667–1670 – 1 December 1723), born Susanna Freeman and also known professionally as Susanna Carroll, was an English poet, actress, and "the most successful female playwright of the eighteenth century". Centlivre's "pieces continued to be acted after the theatre managers had forgotten most of her contemporaries." During a long career at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, she became known as the second woman of the English stage, after Aphra Behn. Plays written by her are: The Perjur'd Husband; or, The Adventures of Venice (1700), The Beau's Duel; or, A Soldier for the Ladies (1702), The Stolen Heiress; or, the Salamanca Doctor Outplotted (1702; published 1703), Love's Contrivance; or, Le Médecin Malgré Lui (1703) The Wonder: A Woman Keeps a Secret (1714),A Gotham Election (1715, never produced), A Wife Well Managed (1715; produced 1724),The Cruel Gift (1716; published 1717), A Bold Stroke for a Wife (1718), The Artifice (1722) and many more.
5. Catharine Trotter Cockburn (16 August 1679 – 11 May 1749) was a novelist, dramatist, and philosopher. She wrote on moral philosophy, theological tracts, and had a voluminous correspondence. Trotter’s work addresses a range of issues including necessity, the infinitude of space, and the substance, but she focuses on moral issues. She thought that moral principles are not innate, but discoverable by each individual through the use of the faculty of reason endowed by God. In 1702, she published her first major philosophical work, A Defence of Mr. Lock's [sic.] An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. John Locke was so pleased with this defence that he made gifts of money and books to his young apologist acting through Elizabeth Burnet who had first made Locke aware of Trotter's "Defence", Her works include: Agnes de Castro, London, Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, December 1695 or 27–31 1696,Fatal Friendship, London, Lincoln's Inn Fields, circa late May or early June 1698,Love at a Loss, or, Most Votes Carry It (later rewritten as The Honourable Deceiver; or, All Right at the Last), London, Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, 23 November 1700,The Unhappy Penitent, London, Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, 4 February 1701,The Revolution of Sweden, London, Queen's Theatre, 11 February 1706.
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· A History of Eighteenth-Century British Literature -By John Richetti

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1933 words - 8 pages ... ENG 5880 Research Proposal ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the female protagonist and narrator Celaya Reyes in the novel Caramelo, written by Chicana author Sandra Cisneros. Celaya, better known as Lala, grows up within the borders of two countries, which causes her to create an identity that allows her to navigate dual cultures. The metaphor of the rebozo will be used to analyze Lalas journey as a woman of color and as a Chicana as she ...

An Explanation And Examination Of Critical Analyses Of Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre - Concordia University Ann Arbor, English Literature II - Research Paper

2594 words - 11 pages Free ... and is almost thought to have been a pre-feminist piece of literature by some critics in the 20th century and onward. This drastic change of criticism and understanding of Brontë’s work is emblematic not only of the change in criticism and literary appreciation but of the growth of society’s morals as a whole. The first major critical disagreement over the book was the hotly debated origin of the mysterious brothers Bell (the Brontë sisters ...

The Roles Of Advice Literature, Experts, And Child-savers In The 19th And 20th Century Childrearing - The University Of Memphis/ HIST 4863 - Essay

969 words - 4 pages ... Heather Alexander History 4863 Midterm Question 2 The Roles of Advice Literature, Experts, and Child-Savers in 19th and 20th Century Childrearing. Before the 19th century, there was a time in the United States when child abuse was completely legal, and it was acceptable for children to work long strenuous jobs with no consideration for schooling or childhood whatsoever (1). Poor children also ran rampant in the streets, stealing what they could ...

The Wife Of Bath: Subtle Manipulation Techniques To Gain Sovereignty - British Literature: Middle Ages Through 17th Century - Essay

2369 words - 10 pages ... Grams 1 Mary Grams Professor Moore English G270 23 October 2018 Sovereignty? How About Total Control: The Wife of Bath’s Subtle Manipulation Techniques What is the role of a woman? The answer to that question has differed from generation to generation and culture to culture. Britain during the middle ages (5th century to the 15th century), was not the most comfortable place for most women. If anything, women held the positions of wife, mother ...

The Economics Of University Accessibility - Ap Seminar - Research Paper

1380 words - 6 pages ... Rahman who are research students from MABE, took data from the Canadian Labour Force Survey and discovered that higher tuition levels in the 1990s did in fact reduce the probability of university participation of persons aged 17-19 (Johnson, 2005). Furthermore, university applications are getting more and more competitive; which minimizes the possibility of acceptance and scholarship opportunity. Our main question is, are students restricted to ...

Statistical Methods In Healthcare - Towson University/econ 205 - Research Paper

2077 words - 9 pages ... Christopher Pennington Econ 205 – Scholarly Research Paper 12/4/2017 Statistical Methods in Healthcare Introduction The Institute of Medicine states that quality health care is defined as safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable. Additionally, it should account for, a patient’s medical history, and improve overall patient well-being. The understanding of quality health care is different from each person’s point of view ...

Health People 2020 Communication Project - Marian University - Research Paper

1060 words - 5 pages ... that influence a person’s health literacy include personal factors, which are education level, language, race and ethnicity, age, and social economic status and genetics. Goal The goal of this topic is to use health communication strategies and health information technology to improve population health outcomes and health care quality, and to achieve health equity. Researched Literature Based on my research, health literacy is a priority for ...

Arabic Architecture And Influence - University Of Colorado Boulder - Research Paper

2482 words - 10 pages ... and Jews. However, Islamic influence in Europe was limited since Sicily is an island. Its entry into continental Europe took place in 711 A.D. when the Umayyad conquered Spain. Also known as the Moors, this group renamed this conquered land Al-Andalus, and it covered most of modern Spain and Portugal. By the 10th century, most of the inhabitants of Al-Andalus practiced Islam (Ruggles 78). This period also coincided with a tolerance of Jews ...

Corporate Social Responsibility - York University/sosc 1340 - Research Paper

2766 words - 12 pages ... welfare. This essay seeks to argue that corporations are to be socially responsible for their actions whether they are presumed to be a person or otherwise. In this paper, we shall discuss the origin and definition of corporation first; then we will discuss the opposing views of Friedman and Glasbeek, and conclude by drawing on the importance of legal and ethical subjugation of corporations to social responsibility. There has been a lot of ...

Dr. Jekyll And Mr.hyde Research Paper - British Lit - Essay

453 words - 2 pages ... ahead to show his encounters by composing a novel about split identity called "The interesting instance of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde". This paper will remark and clarify Stevenson's perspective of human instinct inside the novel. What is human instinct? As I would see it human instinct is the normal mien of a person, his/her characteristic slant to act, talk et cetera. Be that as it may, his/her conduct, social states of mind, contemplations and ideas ...

Legal Research Regarding Legal Representation In Courts - Law University - Research Paper

1942 words - 8 pages ... Research Essay (Word count-1450 words) Even though parties to civil litigation have the right to personally appear in court to present their case, this exercised right have increased and as a result it created effect upon the judicial system, which has become significant[footnoteRef:1]. This paper examines the reason why individuals become self-represented, the complications they may face and the issues they may cause. This paper will first ...

Creation Vs Evolution Interview Paper - Liberty University, CRST 290 - Research Paper

1482 words - 6 pages ... Running head: INTERVIEW PAPER 1 POETRY ESSAY 2 Crystal Renaud Liberty University Interview Paper Interview Paper Prior to the start of this course, I held what I believed to be a creationist view of origins, but I will admit that I wasn’t exactly sure what that meant. I remember having conversations with friends about how old we thought the earth was. Some would say tens of thousands of years while others would say billions. I always fell ...

Research Paper About Erratic Power Supply In Africa (nigeria As A Case Study) - Texas Tech University/ Grid - Research Paper

4421 words - 18 pages ... outperforming the standard can be earned. Until passing of EPCA and CAA,, improved horsepower and performance were attained by using larger engines (National Research Council, 1992). The goal of the legislation, and numerous other laws after, is to lower exhaust emission in the industry From the 1980s and mid 1990s, increase in computerization of vehicle capacities, introduction of EPA's 33/50 program (otherwise called the Industrial Toxics Project) is a ...

Transgression In Nella Larsen's Passing - Tennessee Tech University - Approaches To Women In Literature - Literary Research Paper

924 words - 4 pages Free ... . “Nella Larsen's Passing: A Problem of Interpretation.” Black American Literature Forum, vol. 14, no. 4, 1980, pp. 142–146. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/2904405. Toth, Josh. “Deauthenticating Community: The Passing Intrusion of Clare Kendry in Nella Larsen's Passing.” MELUS, vol. 33, no. 1, 2008, pp. 55–73. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/30029741. “Transgression.” Merriam-Webster.com, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/transgression. Accessed 23 Feb. 2018. Wall, Cheryl A. “Passing for What? Aspects of Identity in Nella Larsen's Novels.” Black American Literature Forum, vol. 20, no. 1/2, 1986, pp. 97–111. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/2904554. ...