ADHD Paper ( Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) - University Of New Orleans - Research Paper

2381 words - 10 pages

Guidry 2
Coty Guidry
English 1158
Janet Smith
18 April 2018
Draft ADHD
According to Oxford Dictionary, ADHD is an abbreviation for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder meaning any range of behavioral disorders occurring primarily in children, including such symptoms as poor connection, hyperactivity and learning difficulties (Oxford).
When I was 7 years old, I was diagnosed with ADHD and it’s something I’ve always struggled with, because being so young and not really understanding why I needed to take Adderall every day before school was a problem for me. As a 7-year-old, when your being told you need to take this and not giving an explanation on why you need to take your medicine, it makes you feel like your different from the other kids. I never actually did research on ADHD but as a child I realized that the days I wouldn’t take my medicine that’s when I felt like myself, but I didn’t have self-control nor the able to keep still longer enough to do my school which was a major problem and it caused me to get in a lot of trouble. Rather than the days I took my medicine I wouldn’t talk, I would be hungry, but I didn’t have an appetite and I was more anti-social, but I kept still and was able to complete my school work. Growing up as I got older I would refuse to take the medicine, because they were always upping my dosage, so I would hide the medicine under my tongue and spit it out walking to the bus stop, because when I would take my medicine I felt like a robot. I just didn’t understand how me not taking my medicine really affected me till, I got to middle school, when I decided to take my medicine everyday for one full grading period and compare my grades to another grading period where I didn’t take my medicine, then I realize that the medications was helping me but I still didn’t know what was wrong with my body, all I knew was that I was ADHD, and by the time I’ve gotten to 9th grade I’ve changed my medication multiple times. I grew up in a household, where there were 5 children and three out of the five were diagnosed with ADHD, well older sister and my brother and myself. I worried how can only 3 kids have ADHD and the others didn’t, meanwhile we had the same mother and biological father. I hated it with everything in me to swallow that pill, but the pill benefited me. The medicine made me depressed a lot, many of days and I would over think things which causes me to have plenty of anxiety attacks. The medicine also made me angry and standoffish. Growing up, I remember I use to ask my mom in the morning “do I have to take medicine?”, it just really took a toll on my body. I will always remember, I was in the third grade and I forgot to take my medicine that day and my teacher, Mrs. Davis was in the hall talking to Mrs. Piper about me and she made a comment saying, “Coty’s stupid mother forgot to give her medicine and she’s been getting on my nervous all day.” While she was saying that my older sister was coming back from the bathroom and the classroom I was in was maybe two steps from the bathroom and my sister overheard Mrs. Davis and it was a big situation. After that, they switched me to another classes, and suspend Mrs. Davis. Teachers was always judging me and not giving me, the benefit of the doubt and I didn’t like going to elementary school, because before my classes all teachers would ask “Did you take your medicine this morning? So, we know what type of day your having. If I would say yes, I would proceed to go to my desk which was by the teacher’s desk isolate from the other kids, and days I would say no, I would either call home to ask for my medicine or they would send me to Ms. Polk Shaw’s office with my work and she would be my teacher for the day. Ms. Polk Shaw was the guidance counselor, and she would never yell at me, she always found me something to do, whether it was coloring pages or putting a puzzle together or play cool math on the computer, she just knew what to do to keep me calm. “I understand that it's good tactics to categorize me as a close-minded, unobjective extremist, but nobody that respects me has those views” and Ms. Polk Shaw respected me as a person and for that I am for grateful and thankful for her (Brainy Quotes).
Attention Deficit Hyperactive disorder was originally called “Hyperkinetic Impulse disorder,” in the 1960s the American Psychiatric Association (APA) formally recognized ADHD as a mental disorder (Healthline). In 1902, ADHD was first mentioned by British pediatrician Sir George Still described an abnormal defect of moral control in children (Healthline). He observed that some children couldn’t control their behavior the way a typical child would, but they were still intelligent (Healthline). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved “Benzedrine” as a medicine in 1936. Dr. Charles Bradley recorded data of how young patients’ behavior and performance in school improved with the following year. The APA issued the second DSM, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,” in 1968, this edition included Hyperkinetic Impulse disorder for the first time. The FDA then approved the psychostimulant Ritalin (methylphenidate) in 1995, which became more popular as ADHD treatment as the diagnosed became better understood and diagnosed increases (Healthline). The APA, eventually released a third edition of the DSM in 1980, that’s when they changed the name of the disorder from Hyperkinetic Impulse disorder to Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), but scientist believed that being hyperactive was not a common symptom of the disorder, so they created two subtypes of ADD: ADD with hyperactivity and ADD without hyperactivity (Healthline). Finally, the APA released a revised version of the DSM-iii, in 1987, they removed the subtle “hyperactivity distinction” and changed the name to “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder better known as ADHD (Healthline). The APA combined the three symptoms (inattentiveness, impulsivity, and hyperactivity) into a single type and didn’t identify subtypes of the disorder. In the 1900s, ADHD cases began to climb significantly and doctors we now able to diagnose ADHD more efficiently, more parents were aware of ADHD and were reporting their children’s symptoms and more children were developing ADHD were some factors that lead rise diagnose (Healthline). More and more medications were created to treat ADHD, the disorder became more common as the number of ADHD patients risen.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder better known as ADHD, became one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders for children (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder is a brain disorder marked by an ongoing patter n of inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development. Predominantly Inattentive Presentation, Predominantly Hyperactivity-Impulsive Presentation and Combined Presentation are the three types of ADHD a person can be diagnosed with depending on their symptoms. Predominantly Inattentive Presentation is when it’s hard for an individual to organize or finish a task, to pay attention to details, or to follow instructions or conversations. The person is easily distracted or forgets details of daily routines (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). A person that fidgets and talks a lot, and it’s also hard for them to keep still for long. Smaller children may run and jump constantly and individuals feel restless and has trouble with impulsivity. Someone who is impulsive may interrupt others a lot, grab things from other people, or speak at inappropriate times may be diagnosed with Predominantly Hyperactivity-Impulsive Presentation (Centers for Disease Control and Disease). Combined Presentation is a person that has symptoms of both Predominantly-Inattentive Presentation and Predominantly Hyperactivity Impulsive Presentation.
According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the average age of diagnosis is at 7 years old, but males are more than likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than females. During a males’ lifetime, 12.9 percent of them will most likely be diagnosed with Attention Disorder and just 4.9 percent of females will be diagnosed (Healthline). Males and females are likely to display different symptoms. Males’ symptoms are completely obvious and “external” or “acting out”. Most males display hyperactivity, such as running and hitting. Also, males with ADHD always lack focus, including attentiveness and physical aggression (American Psychological Association). Unlike males, females’ symptoms are less obvious and more “internal”. Females with ADHD are more likely to withdrawn and have low self-esteem and anxiety. Females are also impaired in attention that may lead to difficulty with academic achievement. They also have the tendency to daydream and be inattentive, but it’s more common for females to verbally aggressive (American Psychological Association). In schools, teachers are more likely to notice males with ADHD rather than females.
ADHD has been and still is a popular epidemic in the United States and the cause of ADHD is still unknown. Scientist can only test theories based of what they already know about the human’s body. Scientist already know the ADHD is neurodevelopment disorder, so scientist believe that “ADHD deals with a person levels of Dopamine which is a neurotransmitter, which is a chemical imbalance in the brain. A neurotransmitter is a chemical in the brain that transmits messages between neuros and nerve cells, that controls a person’s feelings on the daily bases. In a normal person’s body, Dopamine is supposed to give an individual drive for a reward and pleasure in humans, which would make you feel good. It also helps your mind recognize a reward and wants to find a way to reach the reward. People with ADHD have lower Dopamine levels than the average person, which limits their brains’ ability to both recognize rewards and seek them out. This results in lack of motivation, without recognizing rewards, the body is unmotivated to act in any direction. Since the body lack motivation, it eventually leads to a lack of interest or inability to remain focused long enough on one task, because their minds are constantly flourishing with ideas and goals it’s so hard to for them to find one specific goal or idea and stick to it, causing multiple distractions ( FastBraiin). Scientist also say that ADHD is heredity and could possibly from mutation in the brain or poor diet during pregnancy (WebMD). But throughout the years, scientist developed different types of treatments for individuals with this disorder. Nowadays, most people chose medications for treatment which help them in their everyday life. Medications will only eliminate problematic behaviors and symptoms during the day for only a few hours, and different types of medications come with different sides effects, that may affect everyone body differently. There’re two types of medications you can be prescribe to stimulants and nonstimulants. For example, they’re stimulants like “Adderall” which helps you focus and ignore stimulants, Then there’s the nonstimulants such as “Atomoxetine” (Strattera) or “Bupropion” (Wellbutrin), that can be used if the side effects from the stimulants are too much to handle or if other medical conditions prevents them from using stimulants ( Healthline).
ADHD is a worldwide prevailing epidemic that affects the entire United States, starting from different races to various states. In the United States, roughly 6.4 percent to 12 million children are affected with ADHD, out of the percentage 9.8 percent of those people are whites, 9.5 percent of those people are blacks and 5.5 percent of those people Latinos. For example, Centers for Disease Controls, statistics evaluated that 13 percent of the 12 million are children in the deep south such as Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana are currently diagnosed. The rates of ADHD, increased 43 percent within the last eight years. States like Nevada being the least, then New Jersey, Colorado, Utah and California are some of the states with the lowest rates of ADHD diagnosis. Other states like Kentucky, Arkansas, Louisiana, Indiana, and Delaware tied with South Carolina are some of the states with the highest rates of ADHD diagnosis (Centers for Disease Controls and Preventions). The American Psychiatric Association (APA) says that 5 percent of American children have ADHD. But the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) puts the number at more than double the APA's number. Using a prevalence rate of 5%, the annual societal ‘‘cost of illness’’ for ADHD is estimated to be between $36 and $52 billion, in 2005 dollars. It is estimated to be between $12,005 and $17,458 annually per individual. ADHD creates a significant financial burden regarding the cost of medical care and work loss for patients and family members. The annual average direct cost for each per ADHD patient was $1,574, compared to $541 among matched controls. The annual average payment (direct plus indirect cost) per family member was $2,728 for non-ADHD family members of ADHD patients versus $1,440 for family members of matched controls (A.D.D. Resource Center).
As Joel Nigg says in the article, “When people don’t fit in, we react by giving their behavior a label, either medicalizing, criminalizing it or moralizing it.” From my own personal experiences with ADHD, I’ve always been curious what ADHD really is and how can innocent people be diagnosis with a disorder that will eventually cause havoc in their life. ADHD doesn’t only effect certain individuals, but it also effects the United States, which eventually leads to various amounts cures and treatments.
Work Cited Page
“ADHD | Definition of ADHD in English by Oxford Dictionaries.” Oxford Dictionaries | English, Oxford Dictionaries,
“Department of Sociology Blog.” Niggs Joel. RSS,
“Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.” National Institute of Mental Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
“Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 31 May 2017,
“What Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?” WebMD, WebMD,
“The History of ADHD: A Timeline.” Healthline, Healthline Media,
addrc, Author. “ADHD Data and Statistics in The USA.” ADD Resource Center, 3 Nov. 2017,
American Psychological Association, American Psychological Association,
“ADHD Data and Statistics in The USA.” ADD Resource Center, 3 Nov. 2017,

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