After going on a diet, Schmidt has lost 80 pounds. Explain how his eating, exercise habits, and/or emotions may be or may have been influenced by the following terms. Answer in the SODAS format. Definitions alone do not score.
· Drive-Reduction theory
· Incentive theory
· Yerkes-Dodson Law
· Set Point
· Hierarchy of Needs
· Facial Feedback Effect
· Schachter-Singer Two Factor Theory
Drive-reduction theory is the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. The drive-reduction theory may influence Schmidt through his eating habits. Before, Schmidt may have eaten more than necessary, which caused him to gain all the weight. Now that he has lost 80 pounds, Schmidt now only eats what he needs to satisfy his hunger, rather than overeating.
The incentive theory is a positive or negative environment stimulus that motivates behavior. Schmidt may have been motivated by a reward from some sort of challenge for losing a certain amount of weight. Due to the reward, Schmidt may have more incentive to better his eating and exercising habits to claim his reward.
The Yerkes-Dodson law is the principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases. When Schmidt goes to work out, he may be motivated and ready to work out, and he performs well at the beginning. However, as time goes on, as his arousal continues to increase, he may reach a point in which his performance may decrease due to muscle soreness. If Schmidt does not exceed the optimal level of arousal while working out and has a good workout, he will feel more motivated to continue to work out. If he exceeds the point at which his efficiency is at its highest and has a bad workout, he may feel discouraged to work out more.
A set point is a point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight. Since Schmidt lost so much weight, he may have had a spike in hunger from time to time, as his body was trying to recover from all the lost weight. Schmidt’s body slowed its metabolic rate and increased its hunger to recover from the weight loss, and this was something Schmidt had to ignore so he could continue to lose weight successfully.
The Hierarchy of Needs is Maslow’s pyramid of basic human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must be satisfied first before higher level needs can become active. In order to satisfy his other needs, such as safety, belongingness, etc., Schmidt must satisfy his physiological needs by eating just enough to where it’s healthy but abstaining from overeating.
The facial feedback effect is the tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger, and happiness. If Schmidt continuously stays positive and smiles throughout his day, he may feel more motivated to work out later in the day.
The Schachter-Singer/Two-Factor theory claims that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal. After seeing the physical changes his body is going through and attributing them to his dieting and workouts, he will then feel happy and satisfied with his results.