Jake is completing a cross-word puzzle while waiting for his friend to get off of work so that they can go see a movie. How would the following cognitive concepts HELP or HURT Jake when completing the crossword puzzle? (Answer in SODAS format)
• Representative Heuristic
• Divergent Thinking
• Confirmation Bias
• Belief Perseverance
A representative heuristic is judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent/match particular prototypes. A representative heuristic could be used in this situation when it came to the descriptions of the answers. This would help or hurt Jake because, for example, if the description was a utensil, his prototype could be a fork, but it the answer may or may not be fork. If he was incorrect with his prototype, he would have to continue guessing until he got the answer correct.
Overconfidence is the tendency to be more confident than correct, or to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements. Overconfidence could be used in this situation if the description of the answer created a prototype in Jake’s mind and he automatically assumed it was correct. Overconfidence would hurt Jake while completing his crossword puzzle.
Divergent thinking expands the number of possible problems solutions. Divergent thinking could be used in this situation, if, when reading the description, Jake did not come up with a single prototype, but multiple possible ideas of the what the answer could be. Divergent thinking would help Jake while completing his crossword puzzle.
Insight is a sudden realization of a problem’s solution. Insight could be used in this situation if Jake read the description of one of the answers, thought about it for a while, and then suddenly realize the answer. Insight would help Jake while completing his crossword puzzle.
Confirmation bias is a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence. Confirmation bias could be used in this situation if Jake were to read the description of an answer and come up with a prototype in his head, but instead of realizing that he was wrong, he would fill in his answer and wouldn’t believe that there could be any other answer. Confirmation bias would hurt Jake while completing his crossword puzzle.
Belief perseverance is clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they are formed has been discredited. Belief perseverance could be used in this situation if, similar to confirmation bias, Jake were to read a description of an answer and create a prototype, but, even after being proved wrong, he wouldn’t believe that his answer was wrong due to his initial beliefs. Belief perseverance would hurt Jake while completing his crossword puzzle.
An algorithm is a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. An algorithm could be used in this situation if Jake continued to think of answers until...