Jake is completing a cross-word puzzle while waiting for his friend to get off of work so that they can go see a movie. How would the following cognitive concepts HELP or HURT Jake when completing the crossword puzzle? (Answer in SODAS format)
• Representative Heuristic
• Divergent Thinking
• Confirmation Bias
• Belief Perseverance
A representative heuristic is judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent/match particular prototypes. A representative heuristic could be used in this situation when it came to the descriptions of the answers. This would help or hurt Jake because, for example, if the description was a utensil, his prototype could be a fork, but it the answer may or may not be fork. If he was incorrect with his prototype, he would have to continue guessing until he got the answer correct.
Overconfidence is the tendency to be more confident than correct, or to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements. Overconfidence could be used in this situation if the description of the answer created a prototype in Jake’s mind and he automatically assumed it was correct. Overconfidence would hurt Jake while completing his crossword puzzle.
Divergent thinking expands the number of possible problems solutions. Divergent thinking could be used in this situation, if, when reading the description, Jake did not come up with a single prototype, but multiple possible ideas of the what the answer could be. Divergent thinking would help Jake while completing his crossword puzzle.
Insight is a sudden realization of a problem’s solution. Insight could be used in this situation if Jake read the description of one of the answers, thought about it for a while, and then suddenly realize the answer. Insight would help Jake while completing his crossword puzzle.
Confirmation bias is a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence. Confirmation bias could be used in this situation if Jake were to read the description of an answer and come up with a prototype in his head, but instead of realizing that he was wrong, he would fill in his answer and wouldn’t believe that there could be any other answer. Confirmation bias would hurt Jake while completing his crossword puzzle.
Belief perseverance is clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they are formed has been discredited. Belief perseverance could be used in this situation if, similar to confirmation bias, Jake were to read a description of an answer and create a prototype, but, even after being proved wrong, he wouldn’t believe that his answer was wrong due to his initial beliefs. Belief perseverance would hurt Jake while completing his crossword puzzle.
An algorithm is a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. An algorithm could be used in this situation if Jake continued to think of answers until he got the correct one. An algorithm would either help or hurt Jake, because he may think of the answer soon after he began thinking of possible solutions, but on the other hand, it is also possible that it could take Jake a long time to come up with a solution.
Question 2 (7 points)
Gordon meets his girlfriend’s family for the first time at a big family picnic on Independence Day. While they are at the picnic, one of the aunts reveals that she has a terminal disease. Explain how each of the following terms could be applied to this scenario in any step of the process of how Gordon encodes, stores, and later retrieves information. Please use the SODAS format in your answer.
• Context-dependent memory
• Flashbulb memory
• Iconic memory
• Misinformation effect
• Proactive interference
• Semantic encoding
• Serial position effect
Context-dependent memory is the context in which the memory is formed stems from the setting the memory took place, and, when you go back to that setting, your memory improves. Context-dependent memory could be applied in this situation if Gordon were to go back to the place where they had the picnic, or if he just thinks of the location of the picnic, then he will remember that memory.
Flashbulb memory is a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event. Flashbulb memory could be applied in this situation because the significant event could be the aunt telling the family that she has a terminal disease, so that will stick in Gordon’s mind.
Iconic memory is a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; or a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second. Iconic memory could be applied in this situation if Gordon momentarily remembered something he saw while he was at the picnic, like children playing.
The misinformation effect is incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event. The misinformation effect could be applied in this situation if Gordon remembered something from the picnic that didn’t actually happen, such as someone telling a funny story, but that memory didn’t actually happen.
Proactive interference is the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information, or old information blocks new information. Proactive interference could be applied in this situation if Gordon was trying to remember the name of the aunt who told everyone she had a terminal disease, but he could only remember the name of another aunt of his girlfriend’s.
Semantic encoding is the encoding of a meaning, including the meaning of words. Semantic encoding could be applied in this situation if Gordon used strategies like chunking or visual imagery to remember the events of the picnic.
The serial position effect is when you’re looking at a long sequence of information, you either process the beginning or the end. The serial position effect could be applied in this situation if Gordon remembered the beginning or the end of the day of the picnic, but nothing from the middle.