Affirmative Action Research Paper

2892 words - 12 pages

In 1960, African-Americans enjoyed neither the economic nor the social standing of the rest of America. They had no access to high-level employment and received about two-thirds the pay of whites for doing the same work. Additionally, the small number of blacks attending colleges or universities lent little optimism for the future. Socially they fared no better. "Black only" restrooms, drinking fountains, and schools reflected the harsh reality that, in America, all men are not equal. Since the time of the founding fathers, this fact has haunted the American conscious, but has unfortunately, never been fully addressed. Finally, the old American policy of avoiding the race issue came to an ...view middle of the document...

Second, Nancy Stein edits the scholarly journals CrossRoads and Social Justice in which she refutes many of the arguments against preferential treatment. As a white male in the South, Auburn University professor James Buford makes the case that "affirmative action" still applies today, despite the elimination of most direct racism. Law professor Jamin Raskin also supports the continued use of "affirmative action" to eliminate the noticeable financial gap between whites and minorities. Finally, long time civil rights promoter Jessie Jackson tells why race-consciousness is still necessary today.On the other side, Congressman and leading advocate of the Civil Rights Act of 1997, Charles Canady explains why "affirmative action" is inconsistent with the beliefs of its creators and an illegitimate program in American society. Carl Cohen, philosophy professor at the University of Michigan, conveys his observations of preferential treatment in college admissions. American history expert Herman Belz argues that current practices which give privileges on the basis of group identity are unconstitutional. As an African-American and chairman of the California Civil Rights Initiative of 1996, Ward Connerly suggests that "affirmative action" was meant to be temporary and no longer serves beneficial purposes. Lastly, author Steven Yates traces "affirmative action's" transformation from a moral venture into a system of quotas and compromised standards.The first topic of debate argues the question, "Is affirmative action an un-American system of reverse discrimination that departs from its original sentiment, or is the idea of color-blindness a fantasy that ignores the necessity for preferential treatment?"Opponents unanimously agree that the original form of "affirmative action" spelled out in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which provided qualified blacks with opportunities denied by Jim Crow and pronounced preferences on the basis of race invalid and unlawful, was a morally sound initiative. However, some doubted whether this was enough -- whether blacks had the resources to fully take advantage after being subjugated for so long. The Nixon Administration reevaluated this subject and conveyed their conclusions in the Philadelphia Plan which legalized racial preferences for federal contracts, setting the precedent for a new "affirmative action" (Canady, 4). Supporters praised the change as a decisive step to undo the effects of systematic discrimination. In the words of Martin Luther King Jr., "One cannot ask people who don't have boots to pull themselves up by their own bootstraps" (Jenkins, 1). Now the Philadelphia Plan gave the push-start many blacks needed to being reaping the benefits of new legislation.Others did not view the Philadelphia Plan so favorably. To begin with, they claimed preferential treatment contradicted nearly two-hundred years of American principles dating back to the Declaration of Independence's proclamation of "natural rights" and the...

Other Essays On Affirmative Action Research Paper

Edit Affirmative Action Pros andCOns - American History - Affirmative

2022 words - 9 pages Pros and Cons Paper: Affirmative Action BY Khushi Jogani U.S. HIST-1302 25 June 2018 Introduction: Overview and Summary Statements Affirmative Action(AA) refers to a set of policies practiced by universities, employers, and government institutions to eliminate the discrimination and improve the socioeconomic status of minorities and women. Issued in 1961 by President John F Kennedy, affirmative action was a tool to redress the injustice caused

The Impact of Blaxploitation on modern day black action films - Film history - Research paper

1777 words - 8 pages Janai Cherry Professor Mehlinger SWAN 350 Impact of Blaxploitation in Female Lead Action Films Blaxploitation is a film genre created in the 1970s. The Blaxploitation period is responsible for action films featuring black leads that were aimed towards black audiences. Following the influx of race movies and civil rights movement, there was a demand for black power films to empower the black community. That’s where Blaxploitation came in. Films

FMLA/ADA/Affirmative Action

1705 words - 7 pages If the Civil Rights Act exists to protect our rights in the workplace, then why does Affirmative Action exist and what is it? Secondly, within the Civil Rights Act, we are protected against discrimination, yet more and more acts are required to protect individual's rights, such as the American Disability Act (ADA), and the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA). This implies that employees are still segregating, and discriminating, in spite of the

Affirmative Action: The Debate Rages On

817 words - 4 pages In its thirty nine year history, affirmative action has been viewed as a milestone by supporters, and a millstone by opponents. Others regard it as both or neither -- as an essential, but deficient, cure for an intractable social disease. Established in 1965 by President Johnson, it was method of rectifying discrimination that had continued regardless of civil rights laws and constitutional promises. (Legal History) According a poll by the

Biography and Important Cases of Sonia Sotomayor - Research Paper on Important Figure - Research Paper

2163 words - 9 pages Sonia Sotomayor Research Paper Right now, in Washington D.C., there is an amazing woman that everyone should know about. She is striving for a better, more just America for everyone. She is the epitome of the American dream. Her name is Sonia Sotomayor. She has an inspiring life story, and the impact on the world through her work is indisputable. Throughout her entire life she has shown incredible independence and perseverance. She has gone to

Refugees In Wyoming

375 words - 2 pages conflicts from America's Revolutionary War to the Civil Rights Movement, to the Cold War.And so, I believe that the current situation in Wyoming requires the intervention of the Federal Government as Affirmative Action needs to be taken in the state. Secondly, the Federal Government's intervention is also needed in Wyoming because the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is in great need of enforcement by The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission as

Psyhchology and School Shootings - Parkview HS - AP Psychology - Research Paper

1566 words - 7 pages Running head: psychology and school shootings 1 psychology and school shootings 8 Psychology and School Shootings: How to Address an Epidemic of Violence Aidan Stewart Parkview High School Abstract This paper will describe a growing societal problem—mass school shootings in the United States. It will describe the psychological science research on what causes certain students to act out in mass school shootings and what steps can be taken to

Police Law And Society Final research paper - Morgan State - Research Paper

2467 words - 10 pages society, giving affirmative action an opportunity to take precedence (Law 2013). Police officers should also be required to go to a class that re-teaches them how to act appropriate in an arrest and other situations. Today, officers know that there are laws dealing with etiquette during an arrest, but many do not attempt to apply what they know, and let physical strength, and force overcomes them. Also, severe or reasonable consequences should be

Should African Americans Receive Reparations - English - Essay

962 words - 4 pages years ago, so still it must be said "the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether." Another noteworthy act of compensation for slavery is the introduction of the Philadelphia Plan, which was introduced in 1967 with the exact purpose of making up for historical injustice. The plan involved using affirmative action programs in building construction trade unions. As the demand for different jobs has changed over time, the Philadelphia

The Phiadelphia Negro compared to Elijah Andersons claim about inner-city poor - rutgers/sociology - essay

1649 words - 7 pages Civil Rights movement took off, and the two worlds began integrating in society. The Civil Rights movement was accompanied by the ‘fair housing laws,’ and Affirmative Action. It was not officially illegal to deny an African American housing outside of a ghetto, and the government called for the black community’s full participation in the wake of Affirmative Action. Then, just as they were finally getting access to large-scale manufacture jobs, the

Loguc Test Review for the unit 2 test in Mr. Arocke's class - St. Augustine S.S. U Philosophy - Review For Test

1649 words - 7 pages intelligence research as technology can begin to function more like a human. Boolean Logic: Known as Boolean logic or symbolic logic, Boole’s system was a form of algebra in which all values are reduced to either true or false. This system is now used in many computer applications. 4. How does Fuzzy Logic contribute to the way computers think? It is often used in computer sciences to make decisions based on percentages and educated calculations. 5

Similar Papers

Affirmative Action, Is It Still Needed? Industrial Psychology Research Paper

2003 words - 9 pages receives more criticism than it gives equal opportunity. Psychologists are responsible for finding one of the main reasons for the implementation of Affirmative Action. "The denial of personal discrimination,” when a person believes that they are somehow excluded from the discriminatory practices that affects others in the same group as them, was first realized by psychologists in 1982. Research shows that people within disadvantaged groups may

Affirmative Action: Is It Beneficial Or Not? Preparatory Academy For Writers Research Paper

3382 words - 14 pages could look like if we worked together. Research Why is Diversity so important? Affirmative action is needed because it facilitates the integration and tolerance of women and minorities in the United States by fostering diversity in educational and professional institutions. A diverse classroom strengthens the learning experience for all students. Different opinions, life experiences and ideas add to the classroom and campus dynamic. Diversity is

Business Law Paper About Affirmative Action Business Law Term

2225 words - 9 pages appropriately cited footnote, endnote or reference note is solely mine. Matthew Bannon Attachment Executive Summary Affirmative Action has been a debated all throughout its an implantation back in the early in the 1960’s. The ultimate goal was to create equality for women and minorities in the workplace. This paper aims to discuss the positives and negatives that affirmative action has brought to the United States. Ultimately, the goal was to

Pros And Cons Of Affirmative Action History Affirmative Action

1994 words - 8 pages Pros and Cons Paper: Affirmative Action BY Khushi Jogani U.S. HIST-1302 25 June 2018 Introduction: Overview and Summary Statements Affirmative Action(AA) refers to a set of policies practiced by universities, employers, and government institutions to eliminate the discrimination and improve the socioeconomic status of minorities and women. Issued in 1961 by President John F Kennedy, affirmative action was a tool to redress the injustice caused