Essay On Ammonia

542 words - 3 pages

Ammonia (NH3) PROPERTIES This is a colourless, overpowering gas. A saturated aqueous solution of ammonia contains 45 percent ammonia by weight at 0° C and 30 percent at ordinary room temperatures. On solution in water, ammonia becomes ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH, which is strongly basic and similar in chemical behavior to the hydroxides of the alkali metals. Ammonia melts at - 77.7°C, boils at -33.35°C, and has a density of 0.68 at its boiling point and 1 atm of pressure. Ammonia is highly soluble in water and forms a solution known as ammonium hydroxide. Ammonia is not very reactive when dry, but it reacts with many chemicals when dissolved in water. Ammonium hydroxide neutralizes acids and forms the corresponding ammonium salts. For example, hydrochloric acid added to ammonium hydroxide produces a solution of ammonium chloride. When combined with some metals, ammonium hydroxide forms complex compounds called ammines. For example, the addition of ammonium hydroxide to a pale blue solution of cupric sulfate produces a deep blue solution of cupric ammine sulfate.HISTORY Ammonia has been around for along time now dating back to the ancients. They had derived the name and the substance from sal ammoniac (a mineral that is one of the most common and most well known of the ammonium-bearing minerals). The ammonia was produced at the Temple of Jupiter Ammon in Libya by the distillation of camel dung. During the Middle Ages in Europe ammonia was obtained by heating the horns and hoofs of oxen and was called spirits of hartshorn.USES Ammonia is widely used as a fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate and other ammonium salts help to increase crop production because they have a high percentage of nitrogen. In some farming areas, anhydrous ammonia is now applied directly to the fields from large tanks that contain the compressed gas. Large quantities of ammonia are oxidized to make nitric acid, which is needed to make such explosives as TNT, nitroglycerin, and ammonium nitrate. The textile industry uses ammonia in the production of synthetic fibers such as nylon and cup ammonium rayon. Ammonia is also used in dyeing and scouring cotton, wool, and other fibers. Ammonia water sometimes serves as a cleaning fluid and can be used to restore fabrics that have been stained by acids. Ammonia is also vital in the manufacture of many chemicals, plastics, vitamins, and drugs. For example, it acts as a catalyst in making plastics such as Bakelite, and it is used as a reactant in making melamine resins for plastics.ANTIDOTE The common antidote to ammonia poisoning are drugs or other remedies that would counteract the effect of poisons. It may neutralize the poison chemically, as bicarbonate taken as an antidote for acid; it may render the poison insoluble and therefore harmless, as Epsom salt as an antidote for lead; it may absorb the poison, as charcoal as an antidote for alkaloids; or it may cost the stomach, as olive oil as an antidote for ammonia poisoning.


Zone of inhibition of e. coli and ammonia - Honors Biology - Essay

2978 words - 12 pages Shalash & Mason �1 Abstract Objective: Environmental sustainability is decreasing every day due to the actions of humans. Many substances used in the home can be released into the environment over time, causing the deterioration of our earth around us, specifically aquatic animals. This study tested the effects of ammonia window cleaner on E. coli compared to ammonia-free window cleaner and water. If ammonia in window cleaner is exposed to E

Essay On Haber Process

526 words - 3 pages Free During the World War I, Germany was dependent on sodium nitrate deposits in Chile for the nitrogen-containing compounds needed to make explosives. Seeking to free Germany from dependence on Chile, a German chemist named Fritz Haber examined the direct combination reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen, a reaction that forms ammonia.If we decrease the concentration of ammonia in the system, this decreased concentration of ammonia is a stress

synthesis of pentammino cobalt (III) - WIT - Laboratoray report

1217 words - 5 pages Chloride a. : 0.2778 : 0.5556 8. UV spectra Figure 2: The UV-Vis spectrum of complex showing two peaks. With max of at 523 nm and 358.9 nm and the absorbance at 0.917. Discussion First part of the experiment was the critical section of the synthesis as the reaction reacted quickly and it had to be careful when adding the reagents and measuring it. When the ammonium chloride was added to 0.88 density ammonia and powdered CoCl2.6H2O it

sichuan china 2008 and paper on the impacts of the earthquake on the population - geography - research paper

423 words - 2 pages reported missing always increases. The earthquake occurred because the pressure resulting from the Indian plate colliding with the Eurasian was sent along the Longmenshan fault line that runs through Sichuan. Chemical plants collapsed killing hundreds and Releasing toxic ammonia. Power and water supplies were cut and flooding occurred because landslides have blocked rivers. Some areas of Wenchuan a rural area had not been reached within 30 hours of

An Abused Child Called "IT" Essay

439 words - 2 pages "IT", David was the child that his mother made do all the chores. She would play torturous games that left him almost dead at the end. An example or two is locking him into the bathroom and making him smell the ammonia. She also makes him eat the feces of his baby brother's diaper. David's bed was an old army cot in the basement, and his clothes were torn and raunchy. David's mother treated David as a slave, not a son, and not a boy, but an "IT

Marian Drew Bandicoot and Quince - digital media - essay

435 words - 2 pages infertile and acidic soil content, if used for farming will lead to low yields. Most common pollutants, which end up affecting agricultural activity include sulphur dioxide, fluorides, ammonia, chlorine and particulate matter. But experts say widespread pollutants consist primarily of oxidants. Ozone, the major component of oxidants, is produced in the atmosphere during a complex reaction involving nitrogen oxides and reactive hydrocarbons, components of automobile exhausts and fossil fuel burning. As this process proceeds only in sunlight, it is called a photo-chemical reaction leading to injury on crops. 

I Had To Join

543 words - 3 pages Hydrogen makes up seventy-five percent of the earth's mass.Hydrogen is usually found on earth in combination with oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen. To be used it must be separated from these.Hydrogen is a very safe element when used as an energy source, it emits nothing into the air but water. It also has more uses then electricity. Hydrogen is primarily used in manufacturing ammonia, petroleum refining, hydrogen peroxide, and in the

general chemistry 2. sample exam chapter 16-17 - suny potsdam - sample exam

1654 words - 7 pages Free ) + O2(g) is second order in H2O2 with a rate constant of 0.650 M -1 s-1. If the initial concentration of H2O2 is 0.118 M, the concentration of H2O2 will be M after 56.7 seconds have passed. 10. In a study of the decomposition of ammonia on a platinum surface at 856 C NH3 → 1/2 N2 + 3/2 H2 the concentration of NH3 was followed as a function of time. It was found that a graph of [NH3] versus time in seconds gave a straight line with a slope of

Lab report Chemical Equilibrium: Reversible Reactions - vanier and chemistery sec5 - Report

871 words - 4 pages acid 12/mol/L was added drop-wise into one of the test tubs. Then water was added slowly using a squeeze bottle until reaction is reversed. For part D a stock solution was prepared by adding 2 drops of concentrated ammonia and 2 drops of phenolphthalein to 50 mL of water. Then a very small amount of solid ammonium chloride was dissolved In about 5mL of stock solution and the reaction was observed. Afterwards for part E 8.0mL of distilled water was

Decriptive essay about shooting a deer called the shot about me - Central Texas College. Composition 1 - Essay

718 words - 3 pages my seat. As I sit and wait for my dad to come up, I can smell the foul, ammonia like scent of the doe estrus. After a few minutes I hear dad climbing up the ladder. “Now we wait” he whispers under his breath as he takes a seat next to me. We both sit motionless and quiet in our chair as we stare out into the pitch-black field. The next thing I feel is a nudge on my shoulder. I had fallen asleep. I open my eyes to the sun shining and the field in

Hemodynamics and the Urinary System - English - Homework Assignments

2207 words - 9 pages plasma pH by conserving HCO3- and excreting H+ ● Ion balance - Regulate levels of K+, Na+, Ca2+, CI-, and PO4- ● Waste removal - Drugs, metabolic waste (urea, ammonia) Organs of the Urinary System ● Kidneys - Retroperitoneal ● Ureters ● Urinary bladder ● Urethra Internal Anatomy of the Kidney ● Renal capsule - Dense irregular connective tissue ● Renal medulla - Renal pyramids + columns ● Renal cortex = superficial layer ● Calyx - Collects urine

Case study concerning wolkwagen - School of engineering, 2nd year - Wolkswagen electrics cars

1770 words - 8 pages Ammonia and Nitrogen near river a canal causing water pollution issues. Hilbert (2011) has cited a research done by Pandey et al (1990) that has shown waste in the rubber industry is often under the form of water. However, this water is contaminated, inside you there are acids, and carbonaceous organic such as Nitrogen and Sulphate used in the coagulation of Latex. Lastly, the author also raised a concern about the odour caused by the use of compounds

Scientific Studies SHE Task on Environment - Scientific Studies - Science as a Human Endeavour

1913 words - 8 pages Applied as Other properties advantages/disadvantages Ammonia NH3 82 Very soluble Gas or aqueous solution · Toxic gas, difficult to handle Urea NH2CONH2 47 Very soluble Solid · Easily synthesized · Relatively non-toxic · In soil reacts to release ammonia over time to provide longer term supply of nitrate by oxidation Ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 33.5 Very soluble Solid · Powerful explosive must be handled and stored with great care Ammonium sulfate (NH4

The Immoral Effects of Factory Farming In America - Cabrillo High School AP Seminar - Research Paper

1173 words - 5 pages Animals (LCA) states, “Like other factory farmed animals broiler chickens are raised in such overcrowded enclosures that they became aggressive to stop them from fighting with one another, their beaks and toes are cut without anesthesia. Some cannot eat after being “debeaked” and starve. They never breathe fresh air but instead inhale ammonia day after day.” Socially Responsible Agricultural Project states,”The fast processing lines in industrial

Chemistry Sanitation of swimming pool - Ch5 - Research Paper

5028 words - 21 pages → 2Cl- + O2 1 symbol for sunlight1 THE CHEMISTRY BEHIND SWIMMING POOLS �6 The cyanuric acid in the water forms a weak and temporary bond with the chlorine ions, stopping UV energy from degrading the chlorine residue. (Askins, 2013) Chlorine Level The chlorine level of a swimming pool refers to the amounts of free chlorine and combined chlorine left after reaction. In swimming pools, swimmers carry ammonia through the forms of sweat and urine