Mass and Weight are two very different things that are constantly mixed up. Weight is
the force of gravity on an object. Whereas mass is the quantity of matter in an object, or a
measure of the inertia that an object exhibits in response to any effort made to change its state of
motion. Weight and mass are directly proportional to each other so if an object has a greater
mass it will have a greater weight. In our catapult there are multiple materials being used. For
example a piece of wood and a piece of steel will have very different masses. Most of the
catapult is made of wood but there is a steel tube going through the middle of it which has a
much greater mass and a much greater weight than the wood.
Impulse is the product of force and the time interval during which the force acts. Impulse
equals the change in momentum or force times time. In our catapult there is an amount of force
that will be exerted on the ball and you multiply that for how long the catapult is in contact with
the softball. The less time the ball is in the catapult the smaller the impulse will be. Just like the
less force the less impulse.
Torque is force times lever arm and torque tends to produce rotational acceleration.