Analysis Of Ouyang Xiu's Essay On Fundamentals University Of Georgia Hist 3662 Essay

1207 words - 5 pages

Jonathan Book
HIST 3662
First Essay
Trunk Before the Branches
Through the use of natural, architectural, and medical metaphors Ouyang Xiu, in his “Essay on Fundamentals,” confronts the issues of lackluster policy and institutions in the Song and the ever-present threat, which he argues, Buddhism poses to the moral fortitude of the citizens in the Song Empire. Ouyang compares empires to trees needing a strong foundation, dynasties to broken-down dwellings, and Buddhism to a disease that plagues the people of the Song. Ouyang uses these natural, architectural, and medical metaphors to expose the need for a complete revamp of Song government and society through institutional reforms and the revival of ancient Confusion teachings.
Ouyang uses a natural metaphor comparing empires to trees in order to convey that an empire should have a strong foundation where certain policy and institutional matters are put first in order to support the rest of the empire. “The affairs of the empire have their trunks and their branches… The three kings knew well how to proceed from trunk to branch, knew what to put first and what after, and in doing this they had system and regularity.” (591) Ouyang has a clear idea of what tasks should be addressed first by those in charge. He provides five key responsibilities that need to be addressed first: revenue, soldiers, institutions, worthy men to delegate to, and incentives for them to accept employment. “Thus one equalizes revenues and controls troops, sets up laws to regulate them, delegates the preservation of the laws to the worthy, and honors fame in order to give the worthy incentive.” (591) It is these five things that all great empires prioritize above all other things. It is not that unsuccessful empires do not promote any of these five tasks, but may only focus on one or two. Ouyang says that the first two, revenue and soldiers, are “known to those in authority, but to three they have given no thought.” (591) In Ouyang’s eyes, it is not enough to focus on only a few of the five, each is needed for an empire to truly prosper. These together make the trunk that supports the branches.
So what happens when an empire fails to put these five things first? Ouyang gives a short depiction of the dysfunction of the empires during the Five Dynasties prior to the rise of the Song. Using an architectural metaphor, he describes the empires as broken-down dwellings where it is impossible to address every issue. “fix the main beam, and the corner gives way; repair the rafters, and the ridgepole falls down.” (592) If the empire is the dwelling then the five responsibilities Ouyang mentions would be the beams, rafters, and ridgepoles. “Thus soldiers were uncontrolled, revenue was un-spared, the nation was without laws and regulations; all was helter-skelter.” (592) In the second paragraph on page 592, Ouyang paints the Song as a thriving empire. In regards to the Song Empire, “one cannot say one la...


Analysis of Mouzi's Disposing of Error - University of Georgia Hist 3661 - Essay

1696 words - 7 pages Jonathan Book HIST 3661 4/5/2018 Foreign in Name Only Mouzi, in his Disposing of Error, counters attacks on Buddhism by champions of classic Confusion teachings as well as Daoist philosophies. In a back and forth in which naysayers ask questions and express doubts about Buddhism, Mouzi uses rhetorical devices to diffuse concerns and promote Buddhism. These arguments include metaphor and simile to relate foreign ideas to natural observances

Literary Analysis on the comparison of the yellow wallpaper and shiloh - Georgia Highlands English 1102 - Essay

926 words - 4 pages life. The narrator in the “Yellow Wallpaper” is very reliant on on John, whereas in “Shiloh” Leroy’s wife Norma Jean beings to be independent living her own life. Nevertheless, the two seem more comparable than they appear to be. By connecting the two men, we see how both these men can push their significant other away by being too prohibitive. The first resemblance between the two characters is their controlled outlooks of their wives lives

The effects of Slavery on African American Children - The University of Memphis/ HIST 4863 - Essay

1161 words - 5 pages Heather Alexander History 4863 Midterm Question 1 The Effects of Slavery on African American Children The practice of slavery caused the suffering of millions of African Americans from the year 1619 until the 13th amendment finally abolished the practice in 1865. Throughout a nearly 250-year span, an estimated 12 million Africans were forced into slavery by Americans, with a fourth being youth and adolescents (1). Slave owners considered slave

Critical Analysis of Samuel by Grace Paley - Georgia Piedmont/English - Essay

470 words - 2 pages Haughton 1 Giselle Haughton Professor Alexander-Thomason English 1102-20549 18 September 2018 Critical Analysis of Samuel Often times in life we tend to do things for the enjoyment of ourselves and peers with disregards to any awful outcomes. This was evident in the book Samuel by Grace Paley. A group of young boys were recklessly playing on the platform of subway cars when suddenly one falls off and dies. His mother is left with grief as she

Essay on Letters of Heloise and Abelard - Dartmouth College - Hist 42 - Essay

902 words - 4 pages period. Heloise, as evidenced in her direct confrontations of Peter, was an exceptionally assertive and strong willed individual. Curiously, however, Heloise makes rather misogynistic claims throughout the exchange that seem to contradict her intelligent and independent disposition. However, it is likely that this contradiction is more apparent than real because of the influence that her overpowering infatuation for Peter Abelard had on her


1548 words - 7 pages consonant with a capitalist revolution. But on the contrary it added to the existing strata of parasitic elites.”My ancestors were exploited and denied the opportunity to advance economically in their clan grouping. Score 6: Responses at this score point demonstrate effective skill in writing an argumentative essay. · The writer generates an argument that critically engages with multiple perspectives on the given issue. The argument’s

The Ethical Complications of the ‘Gray Zone’ - University of Tennessee Knoxville HIST 242 Final Essay - Western Civ Part 2 Essay

1621 words - 7 pages Miller 2 The Ethical Complications of the ‘Gray Zone’: An Analysis of the Gray Zone in The Drowned and the Saved Keanu Miller History 242 Dr. Rutenburg April 20, 2018 When people hear the term ‘gray zone’, many ideologies and implications of that word may pop into their head, after all the word is used quite frequently in a variety of fields throughout everyday life. When dealing with criminals in the court of law, the reasoning why many of them

A question of Sovereignty in the US - HIST 100 - Essay

1131 words - 5 pages , but not without first creating a set of conditions known as the Declaration of Rights. The Declaration of rights was in short, “a set of limitations and conditions imposed on William and Mary.” (Lecture, 01/24). However, the people were not necessarily pushing towards any new political ideals, they just wanted a Protestant King to rule fairly and not infringe on what they considered to be “ancient rights”.  The first hint of popular sovereignty

Textual Analysis of Wuthering Heights - University of New Brunswick - Essay

562 words - 3 pages Heathcliff’s return to the story is a key moment in Wuthering Heights that affects many characters in the novel. When Heathcliff first returns, Nelly immediately recognizes his eyes. Heathcliff is described as having “eyes full of black fire” (75) which are symbolic for his mysterious and dark personality. Even though Heathcliff appears to have become a well-mannered gentleman, his eyes show that he has not changed. As a result, Nelly mistrusts

The Roles of Advice Literature, Experts, and Child-Savers in the 19th and 20th Century Childrearing - The University of Memphis/ HIST 4863 - Essay

969 words - 4 pages , missionaries, and charity workers who were concerned with child welfare (2). Experts printed advice literature on parent-child relations and childrearing, and developed institutions as safe environments in which poor children could escape from the negative influences of the streets (3). Child-savers also influenced several aspects of children's' lives, such as child abuse, child labor laws, and the development of the juvenile justice system. The advice

Witchcraft and the Malevolance of the Susect: Targetting Midwives and others in Early Modern England - university of regina HISt 225 - Essay

1305 words - 6 pages always under scrutiny to dress right, behave accordingly and be steadfast in the roles they played on a domestic level, and place in the social hierarchy. [1: John Putnam Demos, Entertaining Satan. Oxford University Press: NY, 1982. 63.] [2: Ibid.] At one level, the witchcraft trails were devised to expose spiritual and religious impurities, and on another, drew a community together purging ‘themselves of the evil within, and used the idea of

Review of Tales From the Hood Essay - Georgia Gwinnett College 2021 - review

879 words - 4 pages 2 Levine 2 1 Levine 1 Janelle Levine Professor Butler English 1102 11 April 2018 Essay #2 Tales from the Hood is a 1995 horror anthology film directed by Rusty Cundieff and executive-produced by Spike Lee. The film presents four short urban-themed horror stories centering on police brutality, domestic abuse and gang violence; all presented within a frame story of three drug dealers buying some “found” drugs from an eccentric and story prone

The Terrible Beauty of Brain Surgery Analysis - Dalhousie University - Essay

1165 words - 5 pages [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] 1 Sibley Robin Sibley B00819093 CRWR/ENGL 1030 A. Brittan, G. Miller 2018-10-17 The Terrible Beauty of Post-Communist Albania In his essay The Terrible Beauty of Brain Surgery, Karl Ove Knausgaard recounts the stunning and intricate details of his visit to Tirana, Albania. Knausgaard’s travel to the small country is for the purpose of observing a ground breaking surgical procedure pioneered and performed by

Astrophel and Stella Sonnet 27 analysis - University of Birmingham - Essay

1707 words - 7 pages Alexander, ‘Writing After Sidney: the literary response to Sir Phillip Sidney 1586-1640’, (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2006) p.205] A doting male lover is a typical feature within Petrarchan poetry. Astrophel’s poetic worship of Stella is pre-empted in the previous sonnet, where he becomes fixated on her eyes as ‘stars’.[footnoteRef:8] This idea of wooing is continued into sonnet 27, and the assonated words ‘doom’ and ‘rumour’ add a smoothness

Liberty Recycling Strategic Analysis - University of South Australia, MBA - Essay

2114 words - 9 pages Free well equipped for the recycling of these items, but presents great opportunity for growth once suitable processing technology can be developed. Section 3: Attractiveness of Industry, and future trends Metals Recycling is, as evidenced by the Porter’s Five Forces Analysis attached, an Unattractive Industry. Metals Recyclers are metaphorically the meat in the sandwich, on the purchase side most scrap generators are looking to extract maximum value