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Ancient Civilization Essay

6856 words - 28 pages

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ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS

MESOPOTAMIA AND SUMER

MESOPOTAMIA AND SUMER

Mesopotamia - means "Land Between Two Rivers"

Two Rivers: Tigris and Euphrates

Forms part of the famous "fertile Crescent"

Reasons why Mesopotamia became the birth place of history and civilization: strategic location, fertile soil and favorable climate

CITY STATES DEVELOP IN SUMER

Twelve city-states were formed.

City-state = city and farmlands around it

Each city-state had its own government and was independent of the other city states.

Council of elders - rule the city

appoint lugals (generals) to lead the armies in times of war

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C.)

known as the "Lawgiver of Babylonia" - greatest achievement was the promulgation of a written law code (Hammurabi Code)

Hammurabi code - inscribed on a black stone 8 ft. high

consist of 285 laws pertaining to family relations, property rights, marriage, divorce, adoption of children, labor commerce, and crimes

SUMER FALLS TO CONQUERORS

Babylonian society: 3 Social Classes:

Nobles - king, aristocrats, priests, and rich landlords

Freemen - farmers, merchants, soldiers, artisans

Slaves

Religion of ancient Babylonians

worshipped as many as 65,000 gods (Shamash - god of the sun, Marduk - god of war, Ishtar - goddess of love, Bel - god of the earth, Ea- god of water, Tiamat - goddess of chaos, Nergal - god of death)

believed in life after death

SUMER FALLS TO CONQUERORS (BABYLONIANS)

Arts - Ancient Babylon

- ziggurat - greatest architectural achievement of Babylonians

SUMER FALLS TO CONQUERORS ASSYRIANS

settled at the region north of Babylon

established their capital city (Assur) on the bank of the Tigris River

Founded by Tiglath-Pileser I

Tiglath-Pileser III - greatest Assyrian emperor

Military genius who never lost in battle

Sennacherib - transferred Assyria's capital to Nineveh (named after the goddess Nina, Assyrian goddess of love)

Nineveh - fell before the attack of combined Chaldean-Medes armies

** With the capture of this city, the Assyrian empire collapsed

SUMER FALLS TO CONQUERORS CHALDEAN

Chaldean Empire - known as the 2nd Babylonian empire

founded by Nabopolassar - Chaldean conqueror of Nineveh

Nebuchadnezzar - son of Nabopolassar

greatest monarch

Nabonidus - last Chaldean ruler who neglected the affairs of state

Hanging Gardens of Babylon - crowning glory of Babylon

MESOPOTAMIA'S CONTRIBUTIONS TO CIVILIZATION

It invented writing.

It produced the world's first written literature (epic of Gilgamesh - famous Mesopotamian epic)

It gave mankind the earliest written law codes (Hammurabi code)

It introduced the sexagesimal system in Mathematics (1 min - 60 sec, 1hr - 60 min, circle - 360 degrees or 6 60s)

It gave mankind the first cities, schools, libraries, temples (ziggurats), hanging gardens (hanging Gardens of Babylon), palaces and sculptural objects.

OTHER FACTS

King Gilgamesh - learned that a plant that gives immortality grows at the bottom of the sea

However, the plant was stolen by a snake before he can use it

Sumerians made splendid jewelry from gold and silver inlaid with semi-precious stones.

The Sumerians were expert in Math.

Babylonians - 1st to devise the 12 signs of the zodiac

ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS

EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION

EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION

emerged in the valley of the Nile River

Egypt - known as "the gift of the Nile"

THE EGYPTIANS BELIEVE IN MANY GODS

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