Assess The Strengths And Weaknesses Of Alexander Ii’s Reforms Ib History Essay

1410 words - 6 pages

Assess the strengths and weaknesses of alexander II’s reforms.
During Alexander II’s rule, between 1855-1881, he can be greatly recognized for his modernization of Russia with specific references to his multitude of reforms. These reforms were implemented with the aim to gain popular support for the Tsarist regime from the Russia people, mainly the peasantry. They were introduced in hopes that they would maintain a strong autocratic rule within Russia. Amongst many he is known as the ‘Tsar-liberator’, which historian Westwood agrees. He believes that there was ‘no Russia ruler who brought so much relief to so many people as Alexander II did’, in contrast J. Granville stated that ‘the great reforms of the 1800s did not liberate the Russian people’. These two perspectives demonstrate that there must be both strengths and weaknesses associated with his reforms and shows that by Alexander attempted to commit to both autocracy and his liberal reforms he isolated himself from both.
Alexander’s social reform, known as the emancipation of the serfs in 1861 was considered one of his most radical efforts. Prior to the emancipation, the serfs made up 90% of the Russia population, despite their majority within the country they mostly illiterate, uneducated and treated as less that human. Discontent ran high among the serfs due to the oppressive rule they were under and were treated ‘as virtually incapable of governing themselves’(Pipes), thus Alexander II understood that to avoid serfdom collapsing from ‘below’ he would liberate them from above. The peasantry was granted land by the government and finally permitted civil rights. Once the emancipation was underway, it was evident that serfdom was a significant contributing factor to Russia not progressing as other Western powers were. The strength of the reform lay in the achievement of its short term term objectives, which can be seen in the reduction of peasant disturbances for the following 40 years and saw no major peasant rebellions. However, the weaknesses of reform became apparent with the former serf’s subsequent economic problems. Because they were forced to wait 2 years to be granted loans, significant trouble was seen to develop when serfs tried to support themselves. Despite the fact that they were donated land which formerly belonged to the land owning class, they were required to pay redemption fees for 49 years at 6% interest. The inadequacy of the lands the peasants were provided with in comparison to the value of the redemption fees saw a significant increase in personal debt and poverty, which consequently weakened the Russian economy and saw it spiral into debt. This weakness meant the peasants found it necessary to return as hired labor to the landowning class and ultimately maintained the nobles power. Historian Westwood saw the emancipation as a massive step forward for Russian society, but it can be understood that he is disregarding the significant economic problems that followed the...

Other Essays On Assess the strengths and weaknesses of alexander II’s reforms - IB history - Essay

Analyse the political factors involved in the unification of Italy up to 1861. - IB Higher Level History - Italian Unification - Essay

1071 words - 5 pages [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] Meriel Turner History/Italy Mr. Lambe Analyse the political factors involved in the unification of Italy up to 1861. The political factors involved in the Italian unification from 1848 till 1861 included the obtaining of foreign aid and support, the strengthening and mobilisation of Piedmont, the intervention of Garibaldi and the effect it had on Cavour’s policies and the impact of cultural development on

The Transformation of The Monster - Pre-IB English II - Essay

1017 words - 5 pages Truman Jessica Truman Pre-IB English II Period 1 25 May 2018 The Transformation of The Monster In the novel, Frankenstein, Mary Shelley develops the character of the monster as a unnatural creature. The monster is described to have a complicated life as he is created by the hands of Victor Frankenstein. Victor isolates himself from his family and friends as he desired to discover the creation of life. Through many trial and errors, he is able

The Real Tragic Hero of Antigone - IB English - Essay

583 words - 3 pages Aaliyah Jackson Ms. MacArthur IB English 8 May 2018 Prompt #2: The Role of Antigone In the play ​Antigone, ​Sophocles never really make it clear who is the real tragic hero. The readers can conflicted as for is Antigone the real tragic hero of this play. However, I saw Antigone as a catalyst of the story, not the tragic hero. Antigone is the character who made the real tragic hero, Creon, recognize his faults and flaws. Creon fit the

Assess the success of the government intervention programs in the 1930s in the American society - Modern History - Essay

968 words - 4 pages Assess the success of government intervention programs in the 1930s in American society  The government intervention programs in the 1930s were deemed successful in American  society as it resolved the main issues of the Great Depression. The American society  witnessed issues as crime, chaos, anxiety, unemployment, falling wages and incomes, as well  as hunger. During Hoover’s Republican presidency in the year 1929-1932, he not only failed to

To what extent was the rise of the Nazi Party due to the weaknesses of the Weimar Republic - HSC Modern History - Essay

1244 words - 5 pages To what extent was the rise of the Nazi Party due to the weaknesses of the Weimar Republic? While the weaknesses of the Weimar republic played a crucial role in the rise of the NSDAP, without the prolonged and devastating impact of the Great Depression Hitler would not have come to power. The inherent weaknesses of the Weimar constitution meant continuous political instability while the association of the democratic system with the defeat of WWI

Essay on the will of the painter Angelos Akotantos and its strengths as evidence - Arts and Humanities - Assignment

1168 words - 5 pages Read carefully ‘The will of the painter Angelos Akotantos’ (Anthology, 2.5.1, pp. 225–8). What information does the source provide for the fifteenth-century artist? What are its strengths and its limitations as evidence about his everyday life and work? Angelos Akotantos has provided us with a brief insight into his world in fifteenth century Candia, the most noticeable trend that can be picked up on is his deep religious beliefs. Angelos begins

Strategies of increasing happiness - alexander college and 100 - essay

1377 words - 6 pages . But many people struggle to make happening of happiness possible in their lives. As the definition of happiness vary person to person. Many people have an unclear and blurry visions of the routes to the happiness. It happens because of their incorrect assumptions of the ways of earning satisfaction. It is important to recognize the activities leading to happiness. In the essay I will be talking about the strategies to increase happiness in daily

Commentary on the poem Astronauts - IB - Essay

607 words - 3 pages A critical commentary on Astronauts Astronauts by Robert Hayden allows the reader an insight into the emotions and feelings of spectators watching a moon landing. The central theme of the poem focuses on the landscape and the description of it whilst also showing an underlying theme of danger. This can be seen through a variety of techniques and word choices by the poet. The poem aims to enable the reader to empathise with the astronauts and

Was WW1 the main cause of the February revolution - IB - Essay

2879 words - 12 pages ”, however I disagree with this statement. Even though there was huge tension in Russia, due to the failure of reforms and political opposition to the Tsarist regime, there was little more than failed uprisings and riots. Figes’ use of words connotes an explosion that overturns society, however, without the armed inpetus of the pressure of WW1 and the forces changing sides in favour of the revolution, the people would never of had the means to

Gilded Age in the House of Mirth - English IB-SL - Essay

625 words - 3 pages history for its societal imperfections. Bertha ruined Lily’s reputation to the point where nobody wanted to marry her, including men Lily had previously rejected herself, such as Simon Rosedale. Rosedale states that “[Lily] made [him] feel [his] suit was so hopeless that [he] had really no intention of renewing it.” The collapse of Lily’s reputation and her eventual death establishes a clear understanding to the audience on how the wealthy community

Extended Essay- IB Senior Year Assesment - Myers Park High School- IB Theory of Knowledge II - Essay

559 words - 3 pages In​ ​this​ ​generation,​ ​societal​ ​pressure​ ​plays​ ​a​ ​significant​ ​role​ ​in​ ​the​ ​daily​ ​lives​ ​of​ ​teens​ ​and younger​ ​children.​ ​Lack​ ​of​ ​acceptance​ ​and​ ​the​ ​desire​ ​for​ ​popularity​ ​result​ ​in​ ​insecurities, self-doubt​ ​and​ ​even​ ​obsession.​ ​My​ ​big​ ​wake​ ​up​ ​call​ ​came​ ​when​ ​an​ ​elementary​ ​schooler​ ​at​ ​the Boys​ ​and​ ​Girls​ ​Club​ ​came​ ​to​ ​me​ ​crying​ ​about​ ​her​ ​lack​ ​of

Similar Papers

Anthropometry Report: Backround, Strengths, Weaknesses And Conclusion Ulster University Essay

730 words - 3 pages -invasive. (Cameron,N & Bogin B. 2012). The low-cost instruments were calibrated properly so they easy to use, the measurements were recorded 3 times and then a mean was calculated and this helped the accuracy and precision of the result. Although there were strengths in this experiment anthropometric techniques are prone to errors that could arise, for example, from the inadequate training of personnel. (Sicotte M. 2010). In addition, different people

Timeline Of Events Of Germany. Italy And The Rest Of The World Ib History Timeline

2253 words - 10 pages History Timeline 1933 – 1940 Ashlea Cross 1933 30 January​ - Hitler is ​appointed Chancellor of Germany​ with the NSDAP gaining three seats in the new cabinet: Hitler as Chancellor; ​Wilhelm Frick​ as Minister of the Interior; and ​Hermann Goring​ as Minister of the Interior for Prussia. 27 February​ - ​The Reichstag Fire​ breaks out which is blamed on the Communists by Hitler. ​The Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People

Reasons For The Liberal Social Welfare Reforms History Assignment/Essay

1411 words - 6 pages Reasons for the Liberal Social Welfare Reforms Context For most of the 19th century, most people believed in ‘laissez-fraire’ and accepted that poverty and hardship were not things the government could or should do anything about. However, the Liberal Government (led by Prime Minister Herbert Asquith and Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George) introduced a range of social welfare reforms to help alleviate the poverty and hardship suffered

How Far Does Alexander Ii Deserve The Title Of Tsar Liberator History Essay

2351 words - 10 pages lacked and would theoretically be open to less political bias, being one of the first reforms of Alexander II’s which benefited the country and people directly. However, it was both the most freeing and limitating reform simultaneously. Government officials had immunity and military courts remained unreformed and, most crucially, the system did not apply to peasants. There were also many major loopholes, while the Tsar made sure that government