Assess The Successes And Failures Of Andrew Jackson's Presidency

2361 words - 10 pages

When Jackson came to power in 1829 he promised much, advocating equality, democratic change, morality in government and true representation. However Jackson's success or failure as a president is shown by what he actually did. The thesis of this essay is that despite the variety of issues faced by Jackson he didn't actually bring about much change. This could be interpreted as failure but his legacy as a strong president, as a symbol of US democracy, and also the devotion of the people to him, does perhaps counter the failings. Failure might constitute not meeting one's promises but Jackson's ambiguity and inconsistency on many issues make it hard to judge his performance. I would not say he ...view middle of the document...

Henceforth rotation in office was called the spoils system. However the people generally supported Jackson as they too saw regular change in officials to be healthy for a democracy. Therefore although perhaps not a truly democratic system the fact that it was accepted and not completely overruled means it cannot be classed as a failure.Jackson was criticised for sometimes ignoring his cabinet in forming policy. Instead he turned more to a close group of friends known as the "Kitchen Cabinet". But at the same time Jackson also "greatly enlarged executive authority ... making the presidency a more effective, dramatic and personal office" and independently ran his own Administration. This was particularly shown by his twelve uses of his veto (more than all his predecessors combined) and significant use of the pocket veto. Rather than allowing Congress and cabinet free reign, he insisted on complete loyalty and dismissed people for disagreement. One example is in his disagreement with his Vice President, John Calhoun on many issues, including tariffs and the Eaton scandal. In 1831 Jackson asked the cabinet to resign for purposes of re-organisation but then elected a new cabinet composed of entirely his own supporters. Jackson justified his actions by claiming to be the people's representative. Others saw him as "King Andrew", a person bent on concentrating absolute power in his own hands. Therefore some might view his government as a failure for being so undemocratic but his election for a second term proved "no man of his time was at once so widely loved and so deeply hated" . His common bond with the people, and his symbolic imagery, won him great support and thus seemed to cover over any wrongs.The main ideals that Jackson confronted during his term were those of state rights versus the federal government. Jackson wanted to limit federal government power and promised to guard against "all encroachments upon the legitimate sphere of state sovereignty" . He had several major issues to deal with, mainly those of internal improvements, Native Americans and Nullification. In 1830 Jackson vetoed the Maysville Road Bill, which authorised the use of federal funds to construct a road between two towns in Kentucky. He didn't want federal funds to finance internal improvements, as he wanted expenditure to be decreased to fulfil his promise to reduce the national debt. His official reason to Congress was that the Bill was unconstitutional because it concerned only the state of Kentucky. However as Jones points out his reasons were political, particularly wanting to strike a blow at his opponent, Henry Clay's own state. Jackson had no qualms about signing other internal improvement Bills showing his inconsistency. If he had consistently kept to his policy of no federal help this then could be heralded a success rather than possible failure.The second incident where Jackson stood by his solicitude for state rights was in the removal of the Indian tribes....

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