August 29, 2018 - Pre-Colonial History 1490-1590
· April 30, 1789: GW Beginning of USA
·  CC sails ocean blue, 1st Euro (lots of sailing in China and Euro)
· Sailed along/to North Africa, South/West Euro, and China to be safe
· Portugal turns down Christopher Columbus, CC gets help from Spain instead
· 4 more trips to New World
· Pope Alexander VI mandates the Treaty of Tordesillas, Line of Demarcation (1493) leads to Portugal vs Spain(Spain won west side, Portugal won East side)
· Spain rules the Western Hemisphere (East, Central, South) for a century
· Spain vs Portugal to claim New World, but the Pope in Rome prevents it
·  Portugal colonized Africa and started the African Slave Trade, found a short cut to India and China
· Conquistadors- Cortes, Pizarro, Coronado
· 3G’s (God, Gold, and Glory) fails by 1550s. Not much gold was found
·  England destroys Spain’s Navy (~300 ships)
August 31st - The Lost Colony
· Portuguese (head East) and Spanish (kept West) signed Treaty to agree for New World
· Other Nations/Empires search for a “Northwest Passage” to China (French, Dutch, and English are 3 main ones)
· French settle in Canada, city of Quebec in 1607
· Dutch settle at New Netherlands, city of New Amsterdam (NYC) (Manhattan Island)
· English send Italian John Cabot
· 1600s, French finds there’s not a Northwest Passage, but a massive amount of land and the fur trade happening in the North. French settles in (which becomes Canada)
· 1558-1603 Elizabeth becomes Queen of England. Builds kingdom her father Henry the 8th wanted
· Great sailors. Hawkins, Gilbert, and Drake were pirates, they scour the North Atlantic and Caribbean.
· Sir Francis Drake was the most popular and famous pirate. He was asked to sail and explore the coast of NA. (New jersey to south Carolina) He decides to check out the Spanish gulf (where Spanish Navy is spotted). After 3 years, he returns back to England. Queen wants him to go back to NA and build a settlement, but Drake doesn’t agree to do it.
· Queen turns to Sir Walter Raleigh, who established Roanoke Island Settlement (North Carolina) in 1585. *close personal friend of the queen (Friend w Benefits?)*
· Raleigh runs into problems when he first comes to NA. They ran out of supplies at a fast pace.
· 1587- Raleigh decides to return back to England (lies and “promise” to come back
· 1587- John White is now in charge after Raleigh left.
· September 1588- Spanish Armada is prepared to invade England. A miracle happens, a typhoon from North Sea comes and sinks the Spanish navy to the ocean floor. English Navy defeats the rest of the Spanish Armada.
· After that, it was the End of Spain as great empire, and England rises
· John White returns to New World after 3 years, instead of 5 months like he said. He returns and saw deserted land and nothing to be seen/found.
· 1590- The Mystery of Roanoke; CROATOAN was carved in a tree.
· A tribe of Indian tribe tried to communicate with the men (used words common to Croatoan) and so they assumed the men went up to the Indian tribe to live with them. However, it’s a 400 yr old mystery and no one knows what actually happened.
September 5th - The First Colony: Virginia
· Virginia was first made, 1732 Georgia was the last one.
· **70% of first exam is based of 13 colonies**
· British no longer wants to have anything with the New World bc people “vanished”
· 1590 (next 17 yrs), no activity to go back to NW.
· 1603 Queen Elizabeth dies (known as Virgin Queen) with no heirs
· succeeded by the Scottish King James Stuart, reigns as James 1 (1603-1625) Kind of England and Scotland
· King James loved to read, a Christian Monarch, able to read Hebrew, Greek, Latin and English
· 1607 King James establishes the Virginia Company, sends Capt. John Smith to America
· Jamestown settled on James River in “Virginia”
· “Starving Time” when arrived - people dies, no food, illness spreads
· 1610 - “Starving Time” ends with arrival of John Rolfe and his tobacco ships, contract with Chief Powhatan (and marriage of Rolfe to Pocahontas)
· Rolfe recognized that Powhatan is the leader of a massive confederacy of thousands American Indians and thousands of tribes. He is practically an emperor. Unlike John Smith who treated Powhatan as a savage Indian.
· Rolfe sees tobacco being grown in Bahama (and is the best tobacco he’s ever seen). He graphs Virginia and Bahama tobacco together and gets “gold”, knows he will make a lot of money when sold in England.
· Pocahontas dies in England due to the diseases there, Rolfe comes back and tells his father in law, Powhatan declares war
· Powhatan Wars (1616-1622), but Jamestown survived and begins to operate as a true colony (with first slaves by 1619)
· 1619- ships arrived from the Caribbean, “23 Negros” listed as passengers, 4 years later “23 Negros slaves”
· Sold to be tobacco planters, only to be sold as property later
· Virginia first colony to have slaves present on plantation
· England becomes Protestant Reformation when separated with Rome
· Protestant and has own official church
· English “Separatists” on pilgrimage to New World, 1620, settle at Plymouth instead of Virginia
· Separatists moved to Holland, city of Amsterdam, to worship whoever they wanted to
· 50 people packed into Mayflower, headed to Virginia to worship whoever they wanted.
· The sea storm brought illness and sickness, hungry.
· They land on Massachusetts. Separatists called pilgrims bc they’re on a pilgrimage. Many died because they didn’t know how to adapt. Indians came to help them and they celebrated it. 200 years later, it became an official holiday called Thanksgiving
September 7th - The “New England” Colonies & Md
· ON TEST: Who, Where, Why
· The 13th colonies, 1763
· Starts in the middle, Virginia
· “New England” Colonies: Rhode island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire
· King James dies, succeeded by son Charles (Stuart) 1 (1625-1642) Charles 1 is a TERRIBLE king, he hates everyone and everyone hates him
· Charles thinks he’s part god. Believes he can make his own decision and ignore parliament. Except he doesn’t know what’s going on
· Puritans- an economic social class (upper middle class) believes the power of church, deeply influential in gov and society and church. Powerful class, popular. HATES Charles 1
· Massachusetts (1629) - John Winthrop (a Puritan) and Puritans create “model” city in protest against King Charles 1. He wants to build it in New World.
· Dozens of ships arrive at New World in Massachusetts. John Winthrop is major governor
· Charles River is named because it’s a crappy river lol
· Rhode Island (1636) - Separatist Roger Williams leaves Winthrop’s Boston for Providence.
· Roger Williams is a great leader, but Winthrop turns his ideas and leadership down. So Roger leaves Boston.
· Roger Williams becomes Governor in Rhode Island, lots of conservatives (?)
· Anne Hutchinson ahead of her time: “Rogues’ Island”
· Women were forced to attend to bible studies back in the days. Anne was the first one to put her own opinions during Bible study. She went through a trial etc. etc. and ended up making her own women’s bible study group
· Rogues Island, Anne was killed along with her children by a group of Indians that raided the town.
· Connecticut (1636) - Rev. Hooker leads young farmers west to river valley
· Puritans into education, made Yale, Brown, Harvard, etc. To a Puritan, education is very important
· New Hampshire (1679) - Different groups head north out of Boston
· Maryland (1634) - Calvert’s “Closet Catholics” and struggle with small-farm Protestants until 1649 - Act of Toleration
· “Closet Catholics” - Catholics that still follow their old religion ways. Not many people are public about it.
· George Calvert is a closet catholic. Rich man, large estate, and he is a parliament/in upper house.
· Colony established 1634 called Maryland. Queen named Maria(?) but secretly its named after Jesus mom (Mary)
· Act of Toleration: formal declaration of colony of Maryland. “If you want to live in Maryland, go ahead. But we let people believe what they want to believe. We tolerate each other’s religion. Unless you’re, Jewish, Muslims, or Buddhist you’re not welcomed.
· Late 1640s, Maryland gets restarted with Catholics and Puritans. Successful colony in America
September 10th - The Restoration Colonies
· [1642 - 1650] Civil War in England, Puritans overthrow King Charles I, end monarchy, establish “Commonwealth”, then restore the monarchy under King Charles II (1660-1685)
· 1642 - Puritans had enough of King bc he tries to turn back to Roman Catholicism, thinks he’s god, etc. Massive group of Puritans armies are marching against the King’s army and a civil war breaks out. King gets executed
· 1650 - Parliament running empire with Puritans. They realize there’s no point in having a king. Puritans can run just fine without monarch.
· Commonwealth - the people
· The Restoration colonies because monarchy is being restored (new rules). New King is Charles’s son, crowned as King Charles the II (NOT ON TEST)
· Charles II is a good king, shaped parliament and monarchy
· James (Charles’ brother and next in line to monarchy), Duke of York, given charge to colonize:
· NEW YORK (1664) - Old Dutch colony taken over
· Old Dutch taken over by British, didn’t feel like putting up a fight and die, so Old Dutch made an argument how they’re there for over 60 yrs, named after James York
· NEW JERSEY (1664) - East and West fail, combined by 1700.
· Felt perfect to colonize because it’s between land and water. Established as separate colonies at first. When James tries to find royal governors, people were hunting James and his brother to execute them back in the days and some people tried to protect them. James found those people who tried to protect James and Charles and asked them to become royal governors.
· PENNSYLVANIA (1682) - Quaker Sir William Penn; Philadelphia
· William Penn very respected. Helped James’s family to be kept alive and healthy. Penn was offered to be a royal governor and move to nice place. However, Penn was old and passed away. Penn Jr. becomes the next governor although he doesn’t have knowledge of history. So they wait for him to become educated.
· Good soil, climate, river, perfect for farming and ranching.
· First named Sylvania (Mr. Penn’s colony)
· Quakers (First named Society of Friends) - Very hard working people (part of religious beliefs), doesn’t believe in war. Pray for couple of hours to get a message from spirit. When they get the message, they get up excited and quaking.
· William Penn with his Quakers, Sylvania starts off great.
· DELAWARE (1700) - Penn’s “Lower Counties”
· William Penn bought the Three Counties of Delaware, and now he has access to ocean.
· Pennsylvania was all about fur trade, farming, ranching, etc. The Lower Counties of Delaware has a different lifestyle due to different soil, air, etc. could only fish a little. Pennsylvania didn’t want to help
· Lower Counties became their own separated colony, named Delaware.
· NORTH CAROLINA (1664) - Lord Albemarle’s tobacco colony.
· Named after Charles II
· SOUTH CAROLINA (1664) - Charleston’s Englishmen, French Huguenot, and the slave trade
· No one wanted to stay in the Carolinas because it’s next to the Spanish and the Indian reserves. It takes a long time to receive trade, messages, protection, etc.
· George Monk, a good friend of king
· John Locke, good friend of king, all about social liberty, inalienable rights, pursuit of happiness
· Locke wants to try experiment to make own colony in Carolinas
· Ashley Cooper, financial people who sponsors Charles Town but never came to Charles Town. However, people named the 2 rivers after him (Ashley R and Cooper R)
· French ship with French flag arrives to town, they are refugees from France. They are Protestants (Catholics vs Protestant War)
· Charleston, slave ships were welcomed. In 1690s and 1680s
· Albemarle Sound NC
September 12th - After the Restoration
· Georgia gets colonize 1732
· 1685-1732 End of Stuarts, Beginning of Hanover Kings (George I, II, and III)
· Duke was next in line of throne. Becomes King James II
· Duke is low-key a catholic like his father, only king for 3 years
· Mary and Anne Stuart were next in line for throne.
· Anne was the last queen of the Stuarts, and she was pregnant 18 times to keep the Stuart bloodline going
· No Stuarts left after 100 years
· Everyone loves King George II, was King for 30 years
· George III was the grandson, and became King at 15 yrs old.
· GEORGIA (1732) - Hanover King George II, British Gen. James Oglethorpe, military base and civilian personnel, built as a buffer against Spanish Florida attacks
· Puts a military base south of Charleston
· James Oglethorpe just retired but was selected to run the military base.
· Inner city London is in horrible condition, homeless people, etc. Oglethorpe comes down to city to see it and joins an inner city mission group to feed homeless and take care of things
· Bloody Marsh, 1742, Spanish decides to “challenge” Englishmen and start wars. A battle called Battle of Bloody Marsh, a sea and land battle
· Spanish gets defeated and never attempts to sneak up on the coast when Oglethorpe decides to build a military base on the coast
· 1763, we have about all 13 colonies in place.
September 14th - “Americanizing” the Colonies
· 1776 - Why did the British colonies fight for their Independence? What were they thinking?
· Factors that changed their thinking:
· 1. The Frontier - 150 years carving out the wilderness
· 2. Indian Wars
1. Powhatan Wars in Virginia, 1600s
2. Pequots Exterminated in New England by 1640
3. Metacom’s War (1675) - New England and Wampanoags
· 1775 - England is the most powerful empire atm, colonists are a part of the empire (mercantile, trade, import/export)
· The Americanizing effect - living and growing up in colonies will be different than their cousins back in England
· 13 colonies: wilderness around them, people have to build cabins and trails/roads themselves
· Wanted to convert Indians to Christians/kill them
· French arrives (in Canada) where many Native Americans are living. French becomes friends with them, knowing the Indians know the environment very well.
· Dutch doesn’t not have relationship with Native Americans
· [Powhatan Wars in Virginia, 1600s] 1640s, Second Powhatan War bc Powhatan’s son wants to fight people of Jamestown. Natives loses the war due to lack of weapons (generation wars, keeps pushing Indians back into wilderness)
· [Pequots Exterminated in New England by 1640] - colonies move into connecticut river valley to kill 700 Pequots to take their land, hundreds escaped, and many sold as slaves
· [Metacom’s War (1675) - New England and Wampanoags]Wampanoags between Plymouth and Boston since day 1, they focused on adapting to Anglo-Saxon ways. Wear English clothing and names to adapt.
· Metasoma is new chief of Wampanoags. He knows what he is doing/smart.
· Metacom is also called King Philip
· People in Massachusetts and Rhode Island wants to take over Wampanoags’s area, and Metacom refuses to give up him land.
· King Philip (Metacom) traded with guns before war began, and so it was gun vs gun (instead of bow and arrow vs gun)
· 1676 - Metacom is killed
· Religion, Politics, and Language are main problems to change when people come over to New World
September 17th - Americanizing..
· Constitution: 1789, We the People (Constitution day today!)
Factors in Americanizing:
· 1. Wilderness (adapting to environment)
· 2. Dealing with American Indians
· 3. Religion
1. Half Way Covenant (1662) and anti-Quaker violence by Puritans
· When a child is about to be baptized, the parents have to have a public testimony of their religious love or something. Decided to make it half way (only 1 parent needs to have the public testimony)
· One day, a girl gets a seizure and so, the priest takes advantage of that and pretends it’s the devil taking over the girl since the parents decided “to meet halfway”
b. Salem Witch Trials (1692) - 15 women, 5 men executed
· Girls decide to have fun and fake seizures, priest says it’s the devil. People try to find the witch, many gets accused of being witches
c. The Great Awakening (1730s) - Edwards, Whitefield, Tennents
· Old Lights (city and coast) and New Lights (frontier)
· Revivalist movement to get their authority and influence back of the churches
· Ministers of Anglo goes to colonies to preach about god and getting back with the church
· “Sinners in the hands of an angry god” tried to get people back to old ways
· **Search up Old Lights/New Lights**
· 4. Political Changes
1. The Colonial Assemblies evolve
· Royal governor makes ALL of the decisions (power, religious, etc.) HE is the law
b. Self-governing on the frontier - VA, Mass
· Tax districts, so gov knows who’s rich or not rich
· Rich people (tobacco plantation) visits governor, and soon things happen when the rich wants to see something. It’s almost like an advisory council because rich people likes to discuss and see things get done
· 1676 BACON’S REBELLION IN VIRGINIA (Nathaniel Bacon)
· Rebellion led by Bacon against Governor Berkeley in Jamestown after fighting Indians. Angry bc gov didn’t help them
· Bacon decided to light the Governor’s house on fire
· ? google this part*****
c. The Dominion of New England, 1680s
· King James II and Gov. Edmond Andros (Andros is HELLA loyal to king)
· Massachusetts, NY, and Maryland “revolt”
· “Power to the People!”
· Gov won’t compromise and people won’t give up.
· Breaking point starts the American Revolution
September 21st - Seven Years’ (French & Indian) War
· 1754-1763 English fight French (& Indians) on two continents & one ocean:
· English settlers exploring the Ohio Valley
1. 1745 Young George Washington’s Virginia Expedition on Monongahela River, Ft. Necessity defeat
· Ben Franklin’s Albany Plan of Union fails to impress
1. Only a few representatives showed up. The plan fails because no one came
· 1755 Braddock’s Defeat near Ft. Duquesne
1. Worst defeat in the military history for the British. French won and killed hundreds of soldier and civilians
2. Sparks a war between England and French
· 1756-58 French winning, P.M. William Pitt changes course
1. 1758 Ft. Duquesne taken (renamed Ft. Pitt)
2. 1759 Quebec Falls, 1760 Montreal, French surrender in 1762
· Fort Pitt, 1760s
· 1763 - Treaty of Paris is very important, and western settlers can now head for the Ohio River Valley
· July 4th, 1764, George Washington (English Expedition) was attacked by some French and some Indians. Washington surrenders because he was caught off guard
· French still first language in Quebec
· Don’t need to know year or date
· Spanish success/failure in New World
· Goes to Northwest Passage only to settle in Canada and East Coast
· What kind of colonies (what are the New England colonies)
· Jamestown, Roanoke, Puritans, etc.
· Religion (old and new, adapting to new ones in NW)
· Stops listening to big gov in NW
· 20-25 Qs, short answers
· Ex. What is Line of Demarcation & Treaty of Tordesillas, 1492
· Telling the stories.
· Ex. Story of Maryland? (how they form and what happened when people come over)
· 4 factors of Americanization… Frontier, Indian Wars, Politics, Religion.