Bentley Traditions And Encounters Chapter 27 Ming Qing China Outline

2375 words - 10 pages

Tradition and Change in East Asia•Clocks became popular among elite of China when they were 1st introduced in 1601•Matteo Ricci a missionary caught emperor Wanli’s eye w/ clock & then persuaded him to convert to Christianity•Emperor however didn’t convert & missions attracted small numbers of converts•Europeans were active on coastlines in E. Asia since they controlled own affairs until 19th century•Japan also underwent change during 17-18th century•Tokugawa shoguns unified Japanese islands for 1st timeThe Quest for Political Stability•During 13-14th centuries China was ruled by Mongol’s Yuan dynasty (1279-1368)•Mongol overl ...view middle of the document...

officials•Eunuchs only used power to increase own wealth•Many generals deserted Ming b/c of corruption & inefficiency•Horrible famine struck & ppl ate tree bark & goose crap•During 1630’s peasants started to revolt•Manchu invaders & rebels joined together to bring it down•Last Ming emperor didn’t even know location of rebels until they were climbing over the walls of the Forbidden City•Emperor & family committed suicideThe Qing Dynasty•Manchu’s flowed into China & called new empire Qing “pure” (1644-1911)•Came from northern pastoral lands•During 1620-30’s Manchu army captured Mongolia & Korea•Ruling elite were schooled in Confucian thought & Chinese language•Manchu’s outlawed marriages between Manchu & Chinese & also forbade them from going to Manchuria & from learning their language•Also made men shave front of their heads & grow a queue as a sign of submission•An important emperor was Kangxi (1661-1722)•He was Confucian scholar & patronized Confucian schools•Took over Taiwan & extended empire almost to Caspian Sea•Another important ruler was Qianlong (1736-1795)•Took over Vietnam, Burma & Nepal•The imperial treasury was so great under his reign that he cancelled taxes 4 timesThe Son of Heaven & the Scholar-Bureaucrats•Chinese tradition held that the emperor was the “son of heaven” who had heavenly powers•They led privileged life w/in Forbidden City•Ppl who saw emperor had to perform kowtow “kneel & bow heads”•Day to day governance of the empire fell to scholar bureaucrats•Civil service exams were available to males & they began preparing at schools as kids•If ppl passed they earned a degree but a degree didn’t ensure gov. position•Since the system didn’t erect social barriers for takers of the exams it provided an avenue for upward social mobility•Civil service exams were concentrated on ConfucianismEconomic & Social ChangesThe Patriarchal Family•Moralist portrayed the Chinese as 1 large family & they extended family values to larger society•Filial piety was not only for children toward fathers & ancestors but also to emperor•Chinese family was patriarchal, hierarchal & authoritarian (demanding)•Filial piety was cornerstone of family values•Kids had duty to look after parents’ happiness & well being•Groups such as clans numbering into the thousands came from all social classes though members of the gentry (upper class) usually dominated•Maintained local order & provided welfare•Supported education b/c gov. position brought prestige & prosperity to clan•Women were subjected to authority to men•Chinese parents preferred boys over girls•Girls were regarded as a social & financ...

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