1. List the general functions of all circulatory systems.
a. carry oxygen and Carbon dioxide b. carry nutrients and waste c. homeostasis (eg. temperature regulation, glucose levels and pH) d. fight infection (eg. white blood cells and antibodies) e. help cells communicate with each other by carrying hormones f. clotting (using plasma proteins) 2. List and describe the functions of three types of vessels in the cardiovascular system.
a. Arteries: Carries blood away from the heart.
b. Veins: Carries blood back to the heart.
c. Capillaries: The site for an exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste between circulation and body tissues.
3. Examine the evolutionary benefits of a two-circuit circulatory pathway compared to a one-circuit pathway, especially for animals that breathe air on land.
a. During one complete cycle of flow through the whole body (blood system), blood in a double circulatory system passes through the heart twice. Another way to say this is the blood passes through the heart twice during each cycle of the circulatory process.
b. In a double circulatory system there are two circuits for blood passing through the heart:
i. Pulmonary Circulation: Deoxygenated blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs, oxygenated blood returns to the heart from the lungs.
ii. Systemic Circulation:Oxygenated blood is pumped from the heart around the body (including all the organs). That blood returns to the heart deoxygenated (more accurately 'oxygen poor') because much of the oxygen it contained when it left the heart has been supplied to tissues in the body.
c. The pressure of blood flowing through a double circulation system can be higher than that flowing through a single circulatory system because in the case of double circulation the blood is pressurized twice per cycle around the whole blood system. (However, the blood pressure in a double circulatory system isn't twice that in a single circulatory system - it is not that simple because blood pressure in different parts of the heart varies according to the cardiac cycle and blood pressure around the body also varies e. g. according to the type and location of the blood vessel, and with the general state of health of the person or animal. ) The blood is pumped around the body after it has returned to the heart from the lungs. This is beneficial because blood pressure and flow rate is reduced as it passes through the lungs so if the blood wasn't returned to the heart and pumped onwards it would continue to the tissues of the body at much lower pressure and flow rate than it does in double circulation systems.
d. The separation of oxygenated (more accurately 'oxygen-rich') and deoxygenated (more accurately 'oxygen-poor') blood is possible in the cases of double circulation systems that include a 'double pump', i. e. a four chamber, heart.
4. List the major components of the human heart, including the four chambers and four valves.
a. Chambers: Right atrium, left atrium, ri...