Biology - Cardiovascular, Digestive, Respiratory And Urinary Systems - Touro College - Biology 101 - Cardiovascular System

2572 words - 11 pages

Test #2
The Cardiovascular System:
The Heart & The Blood Vessels:
Function: To transport Oxygen (O2) to the cells & tissues in the body and remove Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Parts of the Cardiovascular System include:
1. The Heart – the pump
2. The Blood – the fluid
3. The Vascular System – a series of blood vessels
The Heart:
A hollow, muscular organ that lies between the lungs
1. Pericardium – a membrane that surrounds the outside of the heart
2. Myocardium – the main part of the heart that consists mainly of cardiac tissue
3. Endocardium – a membrane consisting of connective & epithelial tissue that lines the inner surface of the heart
Septum – a partition that separates the left & right sides of the heart
4 Chambers of The Heart:
1. 1 Atria and 1 Ventricle on the left side of the heart which keeps the Oxygenated Blood
2. 1 Atria and 1 Ventricle on the right side of the heart which keeps the Deoxygenated Blood
4 Valves in The Heart:
1. 2 Atrioventricular Valves that keeps the blood moving from the Atria to the Ventricles
2. 2 Semilunar Valves that keeps the blood moving from the Ventricles to the attached arteries
1. Arteries – blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
2. Veins – blood vessels that bring blood back to the heart
3. Capillaries – thin blood vessels that permit the exchange of materials such as oxygen and carbon dioxide
A. Systemic Circuit: A series of blood vessels that bring Oxygenated Blood to the organs and tissues in the body.
Systemic Circuit begins in the Left Ventricle which pushes the blood into the Aorta (largest artery) which then carries the blood to the Systemic Capillaries where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occur leaving the blood Deoxygenated. The Deoxygenated blood then moves into the Systemic Veins which carry it to the Vena Cava (2 largest veins) which then brings the blood back to the Right Atrium.
Upper Vena Cava – brings blood to the heart from the upper body
Lower Vena Cave – brings blood back to the heart from the lower body
B. Pulmonary Circuit: a series of blood vessels that carry the Deoxygenated blood to the lungs to become oxygenated and then brings it back to the heart
Pulmonary Circuit begins in the Right Ventricle which pushes the blood into the attached arteries. The arteries bring the blood into the capillaries in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occur, leaving the blood Oxygenated again. The blood then travels into the Pulmonary Veins which bring it back to the Left Atrium of the heart.
The Cardiac Cycle (Heartbeat):
1. Systole – First the 2 Atria contract, pushing the blood into the Ventricles, then the 2 Ventricles contract, pushing the blood into the attached arteries.
2. Diastole – the Atria & the Ventricles relax and the heart passively (no energy used) fills with blood
Murmur – a swishing sound instead of the standard “lup-dub” sound that may be due to a leaky valve
Autonomy – the heart contracts and relaxes by itself because...

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