An individual’s substance use disorder (SUD) can be examined through the biopsychosocial model which encompasses biological, psychological and social influences components. The SUD issue can also be evaluated form a spiritual perspective as well.
According to Doweiko (2019) SUD through the lens of the biological component can be describe as a biological dysfunction possible on a cellular or molecular level which alters which alters normal biological processes within the body such as the reward system. The reward system is a biological process that is designed to reinforce behaviors that are beneficial to the individual. In the case of an SUD this is where the dysfunction lies. By accident, certain compounds developed by chemist are capable of creating an intense but false signal in the brain’s reward system, memory centers and the higher cortical areas that control reward-seeking behaviors (Doweiko, 2019). According to biological determinisms we are merely biological robots whose behaviors were long establish at the beginning of time and from such a perspective there is such thing as free will.
Moving on to the psychological component, which explores the impact of psychodynamic forces, learning, motivation, interpersonal interactions, and personality on the individual’s substance abuse behaviors (Doweiko, 2019). From its definition we can determine that this model is deeply connected to the other two models; biological and social. This model recognizes that biological and genetic factors create vulnerability and predisposition for the development of addiction, it also recognizes that there is not one particular “addicted gene”, but it is polygenetic – therefore, the solution will be complex (Doweiko, 2019). This model is of utmost importance in understanding SUDs since it encompasses three models. There are various theories associated with this perspective: the moral models, learning theories, coping systems theory, personal defense theories, behavioral psychology theories, cognitive behavioral theories, psychoanalysis and the addictive personality.
The social component of the biopsychosocial model attempts to identify and address those social factors that contribute to the individual’s increased vulnerability to the substance use disorder and increase his or her compliance with prescribe medications (Doweiko, 2019). The human brain is a social organ that is continually learning and absorbing information, this allows us to respond to the rules of social interactions. During childhood and adolescence, relationships influence the development of the cortex, which in turn provides the cognitive resources that the individuals draws upon to learn the interpersonal skills needed to function within society (Doweiko, 2019).
Spirituality is often a subject that is rarely discussed among mental health professionals rather we focus on the biological, psychological and social components on the issue of addiction which is of course of utmost importance, but...