12/12/2016 AT 2PM
Explore the impact of Oktoberfest on Munich and the impact of Munich on the future design and delivery of Oktoberfest
Munich is the third largest city in Germany after Berlin and Hamburg (Global Blue, 2014). It is the ‘capital of Southern Germany state of Bavaria’ (Munich Found, 2016) and is home to a fast-growing population of 1.4 million people (Review, 2016). In the Second World War Munich lost 34% of its population with 279,000 people relocated due to evacuation, deportation, migration and homelessness through the attacks; the pre-war population of roughly 829,000 was not regained until 1950.
Being Germany’s second visited destination (Warlfhorst & Klug, 2016, p.56), the popular Bavarian city is renowned for a number of attractions, not just it’s annual Oktoberfest. Visitors are motivated to see the city of Munich because of both its natural and built attractions that are located there. A tourist attraction is defined as “a place of interest that tourists visit, typically for its cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty and amusement opportunities” (Layton, 2009). There are a number of historic attractions that reside in Munich, the most famous being Frauenkirche, a 500-year old building known as the “Church of Our Lady” (Kline, 2015). There are “more than 180 beer gardens” (Sailsbury, 2012), 36 museums and 61 theatres, and parks covering over 70,000 acres. Munich has huge significance to the Second World War and so tourists are keen to travel there to discover Nazi architecture and admire memorials to the victims of the War; they are also able to visit the beer hall where Hitler attended his first party meeting and made his first major speeches.
If there wasn’t any transport, there wouldn’t be tourism. Each year more than 70 million visitors travel to Munich. Transport is needed for these vacationers to get from place to place, whether it be to the destination or whilst they are there. It must be convenient for visitors to access the city as well as being “an affordable price with a good local connection to the destination itself” (Holloway & Humphreys, 2016); the second largest airport in Germany is located in Munich and so air transport shouldn’t be a problem. You can transport around Munich via trains, buses and trams, bike rentals, and taxis. Le-Klän investigated the “use of public transport by tourists in the city of Munich” and came to the conclusion that tourists are “moderately satisfied” with the public transport services in the city (2013, p.75); the characteristics of public transport in Munich have been described as punctual, reliable and frequent. Transport however has a negative impact on the environment as it causes 75% of the 4.4% tourist global C02 emissions.
With a total of 49.6% of visitors from abroad and 14.1 million overnight stays in 2015 Munich’s need for accommodation is vast. The tourist economy includes roughly “400 hotels, guesthouses and hostels...