Chapter 1: History Of Canada Notes Social Studies Notes

893 words - 4 pages

Alberta and Saskatchewan join confederation (1905):
-Issues emerged with the federal government over control of natural resources.
-Manitoba had issues over schools teaching in French (1890)
-Quebec felt they hadn’t gained anything having French-speaking Prime Minister
Building a “Tin-Pot” Navy”
-Canada has the 2nd largest coastline therefore fishing needed to be protected
-Naval bases were to be created in Halifax, N.S, and Esquimalt, BC
-east coast to protect the cod fishery from Germany, Spain. And Portugal.
-west coast defend coastline from Japanese invasion.
Opponents to the Navy:
-Canada has protection from England’s Royal Navy
-Building a navy would be far too expensive
-Canada purchased 3 navy vessels (considered tin-pot navy because it was small)
-some believed it wouldn’t adequately defend Canada
Canada and USA relations:
-reciprocity (free trade): Canada wanted to reduce tariffs (taxes) on imported US goods
-US wanted free trade so that it could expand on its sales of product to Canada
-many Canadians opposed it; caused greater competition for Canadian products and business
-established US branch plants: US moves factories to Canada to make products and jobs for Canadians if companies fail, branch plants are the first to shut down ans many Canadians will lose their jobs.
- competition against US imports caused Canadian workers in US branch to seek job protection and security (start unions)
Economic Depression (1913):
· Canadians immigrants compete for jobs when money is low
· Large gov’t debt to cover the cost of two national railways
· Threat to war in Europe made investors cautious about spending money
A Nation at war:
-Causes include: militarism, nationalism, and imperialism
-Europe divided into two alliances: Entente Cordiale/ Triple Entente: Great Britain, France and Russia VS Triple Alliance: Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary.
-Events that lead to war and alliances:
· Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated
· Austria wanted to punish Serbia for assassination
· Germany supported Austria by attacking France and Belgium
· Within a few days the alliances were at war
· By November, Germany had forced French and British troops back to the western coastline
· Turkey joined Germany and blocked trade routes to Russia
· Germany was successful at pushing Russia back within the borders
Canada’s response:
-initially Canada’s gov’t supported war to show it was loyal to England
-Canadian gov’t thought the war would be a quick and decisive victory
-French Canadians were very reserved about Canada’s participation in the war, “not our war”
-There were a few French enlistments as they were still bitter about gov’t policies on the French language and education in the west of Ontario
Causes of WW1:
Imperialism:
-extending the rule of authority of one country over the other countries/territories, creating colonies
-claim of land, the people and the resources
Militarism:
-the build-up of a county’s army, navy and eventually air force
-when military’s interest dominates gov’t policy
*two power standards- English army and navy had to be in the top 2 in the world
Nationalism:
-a strong feeling of extreme patriotism (love and pride for one’s country)
-the ardent desire to preserve a country’s language, religion and traditions
-enables countries to develop a keen sense of ethnocentrism/xenophobia (that their culture is superior to others)
Alliances- Nations cooperating with another country for goal eg. Empire building
War measures Act (August 1914):
-“for security, defense, peace, order and welfare of Canada”
-limitations are placed on our rights and freedoms
Colonial Sam Hughes- Minister of the Militia:
· Enthusiastic about Canada’s participation in war
· Created military camps and made military training for high school students mandatory
· 32 000 volunteers
· No French battalion
“Enemy Aliens”
· Defined during WW1 as anyone from an enemy country who hasn’t taken an oath of allegiance to their new resident country
· Immigrants from a country that their new resident country is at war with eg. Canada vs Germany (someone from Germany living in Canada would be considered an enemy alien)
· Patriotism turned into acts of intolerance, racism, and discrimination in Canada
· Enemy aliens were fired from their jobs
· 6000 people were sent to work camps or prisons
· The 1913 economic depression had increased bitterness towards immigrants
How WW1 changed Canada:
· Canadians began to expect the worst when armed guards began to appear on bridges, canals, and Railways
· Two submarines were purchased from the US to protect BC’s coastline
· In the beginning the war effort was largely dependent on volunteers (1915-1916)
· Order industries profited from war (‘profiteering’) by producing supplies to help other countries
· Canadian wheat farmers were feeding the war, so they began to plant unsuitable soil which caused “dust bowl” conditions and contributed to the 1930’s depression
· Canadian lumber and paper products were sent to support the war effort
· Canada began to borrow money to finace the war:
· $185 million in 1914
· $574 million in 1917
· Countries who participated in the war assumed enormous debt as result
· Canadian gov’t began to sell victory bonds to raise money for the war effort
· More gov’t participation in business and everyday life:
· Private businesses now had gov’t contacts
· The War Measures Act imposed nationwide prohibition, the gov’t believed alcohol lead to criminal activity, so it was banned
· To support the war, women began to work outside the home because men were away at war “total war”

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