Anatomy and Physiology 235 – Athabasca U
Keywords and Topics
1. Define the terms anatomy and physiology.
A. Anatomy: The science of body structures and the relationships among them. It was first studied by dissection. The structure of a part of the body often reflects its functions.
B. Dissection: The careful cutting apart of body structures to study their relationships.
C. Physiology: The science of body functions – how the body parts work.
2. Define the following levels of structural organization: chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organism. (FIGURE 1.1, page 3)
Atom: the smallest units of matter that participate in chemical reactions. Certain atoms (i.e. Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen, Calcium, Phorus, Sulfur) are essential for maintaining life.
Molecule: two or more atoms joined together. Two familiar molecules found in the body are DNA and glucose.
Cell: Molecules combine to form cells, the basic structural and functional units of an organism that are composed of chemicals. Cells are the smallest living units in the human body. There are many kinds of cells (i.e. Nerve cells, epithelial cells, muscle cells).
Tissue: Tissues are groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function. There are four basic types of tissues in our bodies:
Epithelial tissues (covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs and cavities and forms glands)
Connective tissues (connects, supports, and protects body organs while distributing blood vessels to other tissues)
Muscular tissues (contracts to make body parts move and generates heat)
Nervous tissues (carries information from one part of the body to another through nerve impulses)
Organ: At the organ level, different types of tissues are joined together. Organs are structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues and they have specific functions and recognizable shapes (i.e. stomach, skin, bones, heart).
System: A system consists of related organs with a common function. An example of the system level, also called the organ-system level, is the digestive system, which breaks down and absorbs food. Organs it includes are the mouth, salivary glands, pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Sometimes an organ is part of more than one system. The pancreas is part of the digestive system and the hormone-producing system.
Organism: An organism is any living individual. All parts of the human body functioning together constitute the total organism.
3. Identify the 11 systems of the human body, list representative organs of each system, and describe the major functions of each system. (Learn major components and functions for each system)
Systems: integumentary; skeletal; muscular; nervous; endocrine; cardiovascular; lymphatic; respiratory; digestive; urinary; reproduct...