1. The Preaching of Whitefield
1. The English minister George Whitefield is often credited with sparking the Great Awakening.
2. The Awakening's Impact
1. The Great Awakening enlarged the boundaries of liberty as Old Lights (traditionalists) and New Lights (revivalists) defended their right to worship.
2. The Great Awakening inspired criticism of many aspects of colonial society.
3. A few preachers explicitly condemned slavery.
2. Imperial Rivalries
Spanish North America
1. A vast territorial empire on paper, Spanish North America actually consisted of a few small and isolated urban clusters.
2. Despite establishing religious missions and presidios, the Spanish population in Spain's North American empire remained relatively small and sparse.
2. The Spanish in California
1. Spain ordered the colonization of California in response to a perceived Russian threat.
1. JunÃpero Serra founded the first mission in San Diego in 1769.
2. California was a mission frontier.
3. The French Empire
1. The French empire in the eighteenth century expanded in Canada.
2. The French tended to view North America as a place of cruel exile for criminals and social outcasts.
3. Battle for the Continent
The Middle Ground
1. Indians were constantly being pushed from their homes into a "middle ground" between European empires and Indian sovereignty.
2. The government of Virginia gave an immense land grant in 1749 to the Ohio Company.
2. The Seven Years' War
1. The war began in 1754 as the British...