4264 words - 18 pages

PART A: Investigation of lattice structures
Type of
Name and
formula of
The formula for Copper is Cu.
​How the structure affects the property
Melting and
Boiling Point
Melting Point:​ 1083​⁰ C
The melting point for copper is 1083​⁰
C. Copper and Copper alloys have a
very high melting point as it is a very
difficult metal to melt. Above its
melting point, copper keeps it’s pink
colour after an enough amount of light
overpowers the orange colour.
Boiling Point:​ 2562⁰ C
The boiling point of Copper is also
very high, being 2562⁰ C.
Metals tend to have high melting points and
boiling points suggesting strong bonds between
the atoms.The attraction between the metal ions
and the delocalised electrons must be overcome
to melt or to boil a metal. These attractive forces
are strong, so metals have high melting and
boiling points.
Thermal and
Thermal Conductivity:
The thermal conductivity of Copper at
differing degrees is between
Electrical Conductivity:
Out of all metals, copper has the best
electrical conductivity, of 100%.
Copper at 20 degrees is ​5.96×10​7
The thermal conductivity is high as it allows
heat to pass through it at a fast rate. This is
because copper is composed of a lattice
containing free ions that vibrate once heated,
allowing the heat to pass through.
This is because current flows are able to flow
through copper very easily, due to its low
electrical resistance. It is also able to do so
without losing large amounts of energy.
The reason as to why copper has high electrical
conductivity is due to the free moving electrons
that carry a charge throughout the whole
In accordance with the Mohs scale of
metal hardness, copper falls on 3.
Copper is a transition, therefore, is a hard
metal, however, is relatively softer than other
metals that are at a higher position on the Mohs
scale.Transition metals have more number of
unpaired electrons in their valence shells. As a
result, they are able to form very strong metallic
bonds, which results in extreme hardness
Malleability and
Copper is very malleable and ductile
metal. It is able to be constructed into
various complex shapes and structures,
without causing any damage. This
allows it to be constructed to many
materials such as instruments, bed
frames and bowls.
Copper is also very ductile, due to its
electron arrangement.
Metallic bonds involve all of the metal atoms in
a piece of metal sharing all of their valence
electrons with delocalized bonds. A metal
behaves as an array of metal ions immersed in a
“sea” of mobile valence electrons. Metallic
bonds consist of the attractions of the ions to the
surrounding electrons. Metallic bonds are
non-directional. Whenever a metal receives a
stress, the position of adjacent layers of metallic
ions shifts. The atoms roll over each other but
the environment of the ions does not change.
Copper is ductile as it consists of many internal


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