Chem Notes Essay

698 words - 3 pages

Periodic Table:Nuclear Charge:Increases across a period (Increase in protons creates a more positive charge)Increases down a group (Increase in protons creates a more positive charge)Attractive Force between nucleus and outer electrons:Increases across a period (Increase in protons)Decreases down a group (Despite more protons, shells cause 'shielding' weakening the attractions between nucleus and valence electrons)Electronegativity:Increases across a period (More protons to attract electrons)Decreases down a group (Becomes more metallic, meaning it would rather give away electrons than take it)Atomic Radius:Decreases across a period (Increased protons pulls in the electrons closer)Increases down a group (More shells, meaning larger radius)Metallic Nature (how easily electrons are given):Decreases across a period (Electrons are not easily ...view middle of the document...

79 (RTP) or v = n x 22.71 (STP)D = m/v (g cm-2)Avogadro's number = 6.022x1023ΔH = -mCΔTIntermolecular Forces:Dispersion Forces:In all covalent molecular moleculesCaused by temporary (non-permanent) dipoles between non-polar molecules due to uneven electron distribution at a certain point. This is what causes attraction between other neighbouring moleculesDipole - Dipole Forces:Between different atoms with different electronegativity. This creates a permanent dipole as electrons will be more attracted to one side than another. These bonds are stronger than dispersion forcesHydrogen Bonding:Only occurs when hydrogen is bonded to either nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine.Strongest intermolecular force but weaker than ionic, metallic and network bondsPolar substances dissolve in polar substances and non-polar substances dissolve in non-polar substances. A substance is polar when the atoms combined have different electronegativity and when they are un-bonded electron pairs that push on the covalent bonds.A substance's MP and BP is determined by the strength of the intermolecular forces. Stronger intermolecular forces mean the MP and BP are higher. Dispersion forces are the weakest, while hydrogen bonding is the strongest.

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