Mohammed Lazim Huq
May 2, 2018
Isolation of a Blood Vessel Growth Factor research
Over the many decades, there has been considerable research done over Blood Vessel Growth Factor. First, I will explain what a Growth Factor(GF) is. GFs are identified as growth-promoting agents and are identified as a highly purified discrete molecular species. GFs are also known as polypeptides. The actions of GF on cells depends on binding to specific proteins(cell-surface receptors). Mark Bothwell’s research has found that the physiological functions of GF can be derived from their activity in tissue cultures which involve the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation during embryonic development and wound healing. It has also found that the sequence of amino acids has been determined for many GF polypeptides. The information we gain from this permits a number of GFs to be placed into families, suggesting that they evolved from a single ancestral protein. Families are members of which are related to amino acid sequences. Mark Bothwell’s research has also explained the some of the many different growth factors such as the Nerve growth factor(NGF), Epidermal and Transforming growth factors(EGF&TGF), and Platelet-derived growth factors(PGF). His research over these have found that NGF is produced large amounts in mouse submaxillary gland and in the prostate gland of several mammals. NGF appears to function in promoting survival. EGF is produced in large amounts in the submaxillary gland of male mice. Submaxillary gland EGF is found in a high-molecular-weight aggregate. TGF are a family of factors with similar biological activity. They have been shown to be structurally related to the EGF and are secreted by a variety of cultured cells, mostly tumor cells, they can cause normal fibroblasts to behave like tumor cells. Sometimes the TGF will interact with the EGF cell-surface receptor. PGF is stored in blood platelets and is released during blood clotting. It stimulates fibroblast cell proliferation tissue cultures.
Shang Ma, Hyo Jun Kwon, and Zhen Huang has done research of the development of blood vessels in the early postnatal brain from the compound Astroglia that blocks blood vessel growth. Their research has explained what Astrocytes are and how they affect us. Astrocytes are one of the most abundant cell types in the brain. They play a key role in the normal development and function of the brain’s neural circuitry. Astrocytes intimately interact with the brain’s vascular network. They also tightly ensheath blood vessels through their elaborate perivascular endfeet and perform a nearly-complete covering of brain vessels. Their research also found that in developing the retina, blood vessel growth follows a meshwork laid down by astrocytic processes. This suggests a role of astrocytes in regulating retinal angiogenesis.
An article from the Public Library of Science study tells us about some of the most recent studies of the GDF-15 and FGF-23. Some research has related GDF-15 and FGF-23 with mortality diabetes. GDF-15 is known as Growth differentiation factor-15 and is a member of the TGF beta cytokine superfamily and bone-derived hormone fibroblast GF. GDF-15 is considered as a marker of inflammation and oxidative stress progression of cardiovascular disease. Research has found that having a higher GDF-15 remained a significant predictor of all-cause mortality decline. FGF-23 is known as the fibroblast growth factor-23 and they are two biomarkers reflecting different aspects of renal pathophysiology. Biomarkers have been suggested as risk markers of cardiovascular disease, mortality, and decline in the renal function in the general population FGF-23 is known as a regulator of the phosphate homeostasis by inhibiting the sodium dependent phosphate transporter and thus phosphate reabsorption in the proximal tubule. Higher FGF-23 is perceived as one of the earliest markers of kidney disease. FGF-23 is predominantly secreted by osteocytes.
Overall the research found from all the articles have given me information on how growth factors affect blood vessels and the body. There are many GFs such as NGF, TGF, PGF, EGF, FGF, GDF, and many more unresearched GFs. There is a lot of development in the process of blood vessels. Plus the differentiating factors between GDF and FGF and how they affect us, and what they are. In the future GFs may become the research needed to cure all types of cancer.
Bothwell, Mark. (2014). Growth factor. In AccessScience. McGraw-Hill Education. https://doi.org.lsproxy.austincc.edu/10.1036/1097-8542.301750. 2014 ed. [New York]: McGraw-Hill;2012. [Accessed 2018 May 2] http://www.accessscience.com/.
Ma S, Kwon H, Huang Z. A functional requirement for astroglia in promoting blood vessel development in the early postnatal brain. Plos One [serial online]. 2012;7(10):e48001.
http://web.b.ebscohost.com.lsproxy.austincc.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=2&sid=f103596f-e3aa-41c0-9f8e-88b761700881%40sessionmgr102&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=23110156&db=cmedmAvailable from: MEDLINE, Ipswich, MA. Accessed May 2, 2018. http://search.ebsco.com
Frimodt-Møller M, von Scholten B, Rossing P, et al. Growth differentiation factor-15 and fibroblast growth factor-23 are associated with mortality in type 2 diabetes - An observational follow-up study. Plos One [serial online]. April 26, 2018;13(4):e0196634. Available from: MEDLINE, Ipswich, MA. Accessed May 2, 2018. http://search.ebsco.com