This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Chemistry Social Relevance: Proposed Smoking Bans In South Australia

2616 words - 11 pages

Chemistry Social Relevance ReportA total ban on cigarette smoking in hotels will be enforced by late October in 2007. Some people think that this is too soon, while others believe it is not soon enough.Smoking is the largest cause of preventable death in developed countries. More than 700,000 people have died from tobacco related illnesses in the past 50 years. Apart from the harm every smoker does to their own body, the Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) their cigarette produces also harms the non-smokers around them. Add the environmental degradation and huge economic burden each smoker places on Australia to the already well documented health problems connected to smoking and there is a ...view middle of the document...

The sidestream smoke that comes off the end of a cigarette is more damaging to a person's health than the smoke that is actually inhaled through the cigarette because it does not pass through a filter, and between puffs the heat in the cigarette is not high enough to completely burn off some of the chemicals in the tobacco:"...Environmental Tobacco Smoke contains 5 regulated hazardous air pollutants, 47 regulated hazardous wastes, 60 known or suspected carcinogens, and more than 100 chemical poisons..."James Repace, 2000, 'Can Ventilation Control Secondhand Smoke in the Hospitality Industry?'(Abstract, pg 1)There are many harmful substances are found in cigarette smoke; of the chemicals formed at least 400 are toxic, between 40 and 70 are carcinogenic to animals and eleven are known human carcinogens. Cigarette smoke is classified into two categories; the vapour pahse and the particulate phase. The particulate phase of cigarette smoke is also known as tar:"'Tar' is the collective name for thousands of chemicals...different tars have different chemical make-up, different toxicity and different physical properties."Action on Smoking and Health (ASH), February 2001, 'What goes in? What comes out?, is inhaled as particles along with the smoke and as it cools it condenses to form the black carcinogenic substance that coats the throat and lungs of smokers. The particulate phase contains many metals like lead, nickel, arsenic and cadmium, radioactive compounds like polonium-210, which can cause cancer as well as pesticide and fertiliser residues . Nicotine (C10H14N2), the addictive drug in tobacco is also produced in the particulate phase. In its pure alkaloid form, a 50 mg dose of nicotine is fatal; however, cigarettes generally only contain 10-20 mg of nicotine. Nicotine causes heart disease by raising blood pressure and makes the blood clot more easily as well as raising the levels of artery clogging LDL (bad cholesterol). Nicotine also affects the body's metabolism and the levels of pleasure inducing dopamine neurotransmitters.The vapour phase of cigarette smoke contains atmospheric pollutants sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO). Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas that reduces the amount of oxygen a red blood cell can carry, starving internal organs of oxygen and impairing vision and co-ordination. Hydrogen cyanide gas (HCN) attacks the lining of the bronchi (part of the lung), inflaming them and destroying the tiny hairs that perform the task of cleaning the lungs, as a result toxic substances build up in the lungs. Several components of both the vapour and particulate phases cause Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder- COPD .Because the individual components of cigarette smoke vary according to brand one way to identify and measure the components of cigarette smoke is to use Gas Chromatography (GC). Gas Chromatography is a method of separating...

Other Essays On Chemistry Social Relevance: Proposed Smoking Bans In South Australia

Was The Fear Of The Japanese Aggression In South-East Asia In World War 2 Justified?

1910 words - 8 pages Japanese aggression in South-East Asia sparked the Australian government's change in reliance upon Britain to the USA. Was this fear of the Japanese justified and what changes were brought about during the war years?Japan's grip on South-East Asia was getting stronger throughout 1941. Japanese troops were in Malaya and the Philippines and were getting closer and closer to Australia. The British were unable to provide support to Australia because

Schools Can't Do It Alone Essay

1963 words - 8 pages . (2008). Schools first: final report. Camberwell: Australian Council for educational research.Bottrell, D & Goodwin, S. (2011). Schools, communities and social inclusion. South Yarra: Palgrave Macmillan.Deed, C & Pridham, B. (2012). Applied learning in a community context helps make school more engaging for young adolescents. Applied learning and community partnerships improve student engagement in Australia, 36-42.Department of education

the meaning of australia day

487 words - 2 pages ".Some of the other symbols include The Golden Wattle,which is the national floral emblem,The Opal which is the national Gemstone and the national colours of green and gold.The Background Of Australia Day.On Januuary 26,1788,the First Fleet of 11 ships from Great Britain arrived at Port Jackson,which now forms Sydney Harbour.The First Fleet was led by Captain Arthur Phillip.He established the Colony of New South Wales,the first penal colony in

Police Role When Dealing With Protest Demonstrations

1411 words - 6 pages citizens: Authority and rights, UCL Press, London, United Kingdom pp 73- 76.White, R 1994. 'Street Life: Police Practices & Youth Behaviour', in Police and Young People in Australia, R White & C Alder (eds), Cambridge University Press, Melbourne, AustraliaWhite, R. & Perrone, S. 1997 Crime and Social Control, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia pp 13.

The Essay Is A Research Paper That Arguments A Law In Florida That Prohibits Homosexual Men And Women From Adopting Children

1251 words - 6 pages law that forbids homosexuals from adopting children. This policy is unconstitutional and disagrees with the majority of our nations policies. Because the problem of equal adoption rights for gay/lesbian individuals is so widespread in the United States, Florida officials must change the policy that bans adoption to certain individuals because of their sexual orientation immediately; officials neglect it at their peril.The policy that bans adoption

Human Rights Within Australian Law

2539 words - 11 pages acquaintances to be illegal. Discrimination of homosexuality on most types of employment, goods and services, education, accommodation or memberships of clubs and unions has also become outlawed as a result of the statute. Though by no means perfect, New South Wales's legislation is the most advanced in terms of protecting homosexual rights within Australia, with South Australia and the Northern Territory also addressing homosexual

Is Political Science Research Relevant?

3071 words - 13 pages 1991, Feminist Interpretations and Political Theory, Polity Press, Cambridge.Siverson, Randolph M (2000) "˜A Glass Half- Full? No, but Perhaps a Glass Filling: The Contributions of International Politics Research to Policy' PS: Political Science and Politics, 33(1), pp. 59-64 Zetlin, Di (1998) "˜ Political Science' in Challenges for the Social Sciences in Australia eds Academy of Social Sciences in Australia, AGPS, Canberra, pp.189 ""200.

All Programs That Are Aimed At Women And Are Affirmative In Orientation Should Be Abolished Because They Provide For Unfair Discrimination In Favour Of Women

2162 words - 9 pages This topic outlines how affirmative action legislation emerged in Australia. In doing this discusses the affirmative action (equal employment opportunity for women) and other pertinent pieces of Australian legislation which were enacted to improve equity in the Australia workforce for women. Why the women belong to disadvantaged grounds and how to reduce this phenomenon for women in Australia by government.So we should disagree with


3040 words - 13 pages slogans of the "Yes" campaign including "Towards an Australia Free and Equal: Vote Yes."[38] The referendum campaign occurred during a greater international movement of decolonisation, where numerous colonies in Africa, Asia and Central and South America and the defeat of the referendum would have damaged Australia's international standing and reputation around the world.[39] The Vote Yes campaign utilised this international pressure, clearly shown in

What Is The Effect Of Digital Divide?

806 words - 4 pages physical ability.3. The Australia Digital divide:3.1 Difference in access between socio-economic groups:In Curtin's article (2001), indicates that there is a range of social factors influences the existence of digital divide, which include age, gender, income and education. The research shows that the young are likely to access to Internet compare to those in the age from 25 to 54, and people who are over 55 have lower rates of access

Economic Reform/Policy Mix, Covers Macro And Micro Economic Reforms In Australia

2659 words - 11 pages on the mining sector and agricultural sector with the products to be exported mainly to the East Asian market.The Australian Securities Exchange in Sydney is the largest stock exchange in Australia and in the South Pacific and ranks 9th in the world in terms of market capitalisation. Australia is home to some of the largest companies in the world, including but not limited to, BHP Billiton, National Australia Bank, Commonwealth Bank, Rio Tinto

Similar Papers

Safety In The Workplace Essay

606 words - 3 pages resource department to create and maintain safety policies. Implementing and enforcing the safety rules ensures the employer that the workers will be a productive group. So many trends today involve smoking bans and trans-fat bans because Americans are aware there is a problem. The firms that become proactive and involve the policies and procedures to follow the set standards by local and federal governments will be in turn, protecting

Sexism Essay

1130 words - 5 pages ?,,April 22, 2005Study Guide 1007AMC (1999) Social Sciences in Australia, School of Arts, Media and Culture, Griffith University, BrisbaneThe Law Society of New South Wales (2002) After Ada: A New Precedent for Women in Law,,April 20, 2005Wilson, J. (2005) Composition of Australian Parliaments by Party and Gender,,April 23, 2005

Aboriginal Education Essay

327 words - 2 pages is unlikely to be something that can or will occur soon.An announcement by South Australian Education Minister Colin Barnett in 1999, said that the Government will be establishing an Aboriginal-managed school in the Northern Suburbs. Hopefully measures such as this one and others, will slowly begin bridging the gap between education standards and results for Aboriginal people throughout the whole of Australia.'Current Social Issues,' Vol 99, No 19, November, 1999, Curtin Publishing.

Teens Should Not Be Allowed To Smoke Faizan Sadiq

1432 words - 6 pages , freedom, popularity, and social acceptance. Teens feeling insecure about there appearance get the message that from smoking all that can happen. Companies specifically target females for many years, by linking many brands with slimness. One way tobacco companies target teens is through the media. The more teens see actors smoking in TV shows and movies, the more teens will want to try it themselves. "Non-smoking teens whose favourite stars