Implement and monitor nursing care for clients with chronic health problems
Case Study 1.
1. Discuss the pathophysiology of each condition in Linda’s past medical history.
Linda’s past medical history includes conditions of: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), hypertension and chronic heart failure. Asthma is a chronic disease that includes inflammation of the pulmonary airways. Airflow is limited because the inflammation results to bronchoconstriction and oedema of the airways. The airflow is limited because the inflammation of the airways results in bronchoconstriction, (constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle). A diversity of inflammatory cells are involved, including macrophages, T and B lymphocytes and epithelial cells of the airways. Asthma has many known "triggers," including physical activity, allergens, medications, and stress. A triggering substance and/or mechanism mast cells of the immune system.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is chronic inflammation of the airways, lung tissue and pulmonary blood vessel. It is the blockage or narrowing of the airways that may be caused due to loss of elasticity of the airways, damage or inflammation in the walls of the airways. COPD is related to inflammation of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes. COPD is Narrowing of the airways, damage to the lungs and other supportive tissues. Hyperactivity of the lungs, dysfunction of the cilia in the airways and constant damage of the alveolar walls.
Hypertension also known as “high blood pressure” is a condition where ones blood pressure is abnormally high. Hypertension is where the arterioles (small blood vessels) tighten and get smaller, causing the blood to apply too much pressure against the vessel walls and forcing the heart to work harder to maintain the pressure.
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is where the heart muscle is weakened and cannot pump normally as It should. The ventricles of the heart become larger and/or thicker and cannot contract or relax, as they normally should. There is left right-sided heart failure where the right side of the heart is not pumping blood into the pulmonary arteries and into the lungs. When blood builds up behind the heat people can develop pitting edema, fluid retention, particularly in the lungs, legs and abdomen. Left sided (CHF) is when the left ventricle of the heart is not pumping blood out of the pulmonary vein sufficiently. The lungs than get over saturated with blood and the pressure from the right side of the heart can cause shifts of fluid causing fluid in the lungs. (Brown, Edwards, Seaton & Buckley 2015, pp. 566,587,719,720,780,781)
2. What are the clinical manifestations of chronic heart failure which are evident with Linda’s case?
Many clinical manifestations of chronic heart failure are evident in Linda’s case.
Linda presents with many signs and symptoms of chronic heart failure. Symptoms include: her swollen le...