1. Define Civil Liberties and Civil Rights. Give an example for each that clearly demonstrates the difference.
Civil Rights are the rights that guaranty equality to everyone despite of their difference in race, sex, religion, color, and national origin, etc.
Civil Liberties are the rights that protect individual’s freedom from government interference.
Violation of Civil Rights is violation of conditions on which the government guaranty equality to all minority groups, whereas violation of Civil Liberties is violation of rights on government level and focus more on individuals. For example, it is a violation of Civil Rights, if someone is denied of government service because he/she is black/gay. But, it’s a violation of Civil Liberties if he/she simply denied of government service for no reason.
2. Briefly explain the major political movements/events undertaken that helped advance the rights of African Americans and two other categories of your choosing.
Although it was stated by Declaration of Independence that “all men are created equal” and “are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” many black men were slaves, especially in southern parts. In Dred Scott v. Standford’s case of 1857 year where Supreme Court violated his Civil Rights also held that the laws that were limiting slavery were prohibited. As a result North and South parts ended up clashing in Civil War (1861-1865). After that southern part entered Reconstruction Period (1865 -1877). In December of 1865 a Thirteenth Amendment was ratified and slavery was outlawed. Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments stated that a one cannot be excluded from citizenship, or to be denied the right to vote based on their race, sex, color, or previous condition of servitude. Even though the laws were passed down, the post-slavery south still was the problem. Black people had to face issues such as: understanding tests and poll taxes that would restrict them from voting, segregation of black and white in public places (“separate but equal”), and the attitude of white people towards black in general. Thus, it would lead to a creation of extremist groups such as KKK and so. The problem, with slaves being freed not just on paper but also in reality, was resolved by 1877, which opened an end to the period of reconstruction. Problems with police singling out Black and Latinos, or lack of high-paying jobs in ghetto, which causes many African American to stay in poor neighborhoods are problems that blacks experiencing until these days.
The first women rights convention took a place in 1848 in New York where Cady Stanton claimed that woman are equal to men. She fought for rights of suffrage, right to obtain higher education, and allowing many woman to retain control of their children and property. In 1869 NWSA (National Women Suffrage Association) was formed by Stanton and Anthony, which...