This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Cloning Research Paper

2959 words - 12 pages

CloningOf all the terms coined by scientists which have entered popular vocabulary, 'clone' has become one of the more emotive. Strictly speaking a clone refers to one or more offspring derived from a single ancestor, whose genetic composition is identical to that of the ancestor. No sex is involved in the production of clones, and since sex is the normal means by which new genetic material is introduced during procreation, clones have no choice but to have the same genes as their single parent. In the same way, a clone of cells refers simply to the descendants of a single parental cell. As such, adult organisms can be viewed as clones because all their parts stem from the single cell which ...view middle of the document...

Clones traverse the cinema screen as crowds of dehumanised humans destined for monotonous drudgery, as invincible armies of lookalikes from outer space, as replicas of living megalomaniacs and, in the ultimate fantasy, as the resurrected dead - troupes of little Hitlers and herds of rampaging dinosaurs. Of course, this is science fiction. Nonetheless there is just a whiff of plausibility, a whisker of scientific credibility; enough to plant an indelible vision of what might be, or even what could be.So it is easy to understand why the arrival earlier this year of Dolly, the sheep developed from an egg whose own genes had been replaced by those from an adult udder cell, was seen as the first incarnation of a sinister future. Dolly was a clone of the sheep (her genetic mother) who provided the udder cell. The package of genes in the nucleus of that udder cell contained exactly the same repertoire of genes as all the rest of her mother's cells and so Dolly's genetic makeup was to all intents and purposes identical to her mother's. No sperm had had the opportunity to add its genetic pennysworth. However, there was nothing radically new, neither technically nor conceptually, in the way in which Dolly was made. Almost all films and documentaries on cloning still show the same footage, produced more than twenty-five years ago during unsuccessful attempts to clone rabbits, of a nucleus being injected into an egg. What was novel about Dolly was that she was the first unequivocal mammalian clone. Lower vertebrates had been cloned in the early 1960s when it was shown that a nucleus taken from an adult frog cell transplanted to a frog egg whose own nucleus had been destroyed was able to direct the development of that egg into a swimming tadpole. Indeed, it was this experiment that first indicated that the genetic content of all our cells, despite the profound differences between a skin cell and kidney cell, must be more or less the same and retain all the genetic information necessary for an egg to develop into a whole organism.While cloning can offer the scientist important answers to fundamental questions about our genes, it has a much older and very natural history which long precedes the sophistications of the modern laboratory. The word 'clone' comes from the Greek klwn, meaning twig, and there is a very good reason for this. For example, every chrysanthemum plant you buy at a Garden Centre is a clone of some distant and probably long dead chrysanthemum which once supplied a side-shoot for rooting. Likewise, whenever you divide an overgrown shrub or successfully cultivate a houseplant cutting you are cloning. In each case you are deliberately propagating a copy of the parent, and eventually over successive years and many hours in the greenhouse, producing a multitude of plants (clones) all genetically identical to the prized parent. Elm trees and other suckering plants clone themselves naturally, sending out subterranean roots from which new plants, of...

Other Essays On Cloning Research Paper

Cloning Reflection Written By A Catholic

1242 words - 5 pages overall would be sought to donate eggs, which involves surgery with its own inherent risks.Some scholars of human reproductive cloning have argued that voluntary, informed consent would give people the option of making educated decisions about having themselves used in research. Fully informing patients of potential health effects is difficult or impossible due to lacking critical information. Moreover, the cloned offspring -- who would face the

Character In "The Yellow Wallpaper" By Charlotte Perkins Gilman

1587 words - 7 pages The short story 'The Yellow Wall-Paper' written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is a cry for freedom. This story is about a woman who fights for her right to express what she feels, and fights for her right to do what she wants to do. The narrator in this short story is a woman whose husband loves her very much, but oppresses her to the point where she cannot take it anymore. This story revolves around the main character, her oppressed life, and her

Edgar Allen Poe's View Of Death In "The Fall Of The House Of Usher"

1836 words - 8 pages Edgar Allen Poe's Symbolism of Death in 'The Fall of the House of Usher'Death is defined as, 'The termination or extinction of something' (American Heritage Dictionary). Edgar Allen Poe uses this description in 'The Fall of the House of Usher' in different ways. Poe's intention when writing 'The Fall of the House of Usher' was not to present a moral, lesson, or truth to the reader; he was simply trying to bring forth a sense of terror to the

"Slaughterhouse Five" By Vonnegut

2264 words - 10 pages When one begins to analyze a military novel it is important to first look at the historical context in which the book was written. On the nights of February 13-14 in 1944 the city of Dresden, Germany was subjected to one of the worst air attacks in the history of man. By the end of the bombing 135,000 to 250,000 people had been killed by the combined forces of the United States and the United Kingdom. Dresden was different then Berlin or many of

Psychoanalysis And Freud

2420 words - 10 pages Psychoanalysis is a system of psychology originated by the Viennese physician Sigmund FREUD in the 1890's and then further developed by himself, his students, and other followers. It consists of three kinds of related activities: (1) a method for research into the human mind, especially inner experiences such as thoughts, feelings, emotions, fantasies, and dreams; (2) a systematic accumulation of a body of knowledge about the mind; and (3) a

Comparative Essay. "Heart Of Darkness" By Joseph Conrad And William Golding's "Lord Of The Flies"

2729 words - 11 pages It can be said that a certain degree of darkness lies within every person, but this darkness will not surface unless given the correct environment. The darkness, however, can emerge and ultimately destroy the person if not checked by reason. If one's inner darkness does surface, the victim then is given the opportunity to reach a point in personal growth, and to gain a sense of self-knowledge from it. That is, when one's darkness appears, one

This Is An Essay On The Woman In The Odyssey And Their Influences On His Travels

993 words - 4 pages The Odyssey is an epic about a Greek warrior in the Trojan War whose wanderings around his known world and his perilous encounters are the basis of the story. Odysseus' absence from his home is prolonged by the influences of the women whom he encounters.In this epic, several female characters had a profound effect on the plot. They wielded their influence through typically feminine skills and attributes: seduction, supernatural powers

Title:Aggressive and Passive. Compare characters in the Handmaid's Tail between Hamlet. Offred is aggressive while Ophelia is passive

537 words - 3 pages Aggressive and PassiveAggressive and Passive are two inverse attitudes to things, events or life. They cause different results. Offred and Ophelia are two women who have contrary destinies because of their different attitudes.Offred is a powerless woman in "the Handmaid's Tale". She's a handmaid of a commander in Gilead. She has no freedom. She belongs to him as a property. Her only duty is to have sex with the commander and give birth to a baby

Black Boy vs Grapes of Wrath

444 words - 2 pages Even though the books of Black Boy and Grapes of Wrath gave a vivid picture of the past American life to the readers regarding the socio-economic bigotry. Both books are similar in focusing the social and economic discrimination in the family setting. On Grapes of Wrath the California prejudice against the immigrants. Prejudice was a strong word, which leaves a bitter taste in the mouth. It is the prejudice against the migrant workers by the

Leprosy ; includes what bacteria it is caused by, the orgin of the disease, how many people are affected by it in the united states and in alaska during 1999 and 2000, and more. 3 pages long

524 words - 3 pages Leprosy is very dangerous for your personal health. It can make you skin fall off. Leprosy slowly eats away at you body. It is deadly to all genders, all ages, all sizes and all races.Another name for leprosy is Hansen's Disease. Leprosy is caused by the organism mycobacterium leprae. The pathogen that carries it is bacteria. Throughout the years people have suspected that inhaling and touching the bacteria could spread leprosy.Symptoms of

Reality Vs. Appearance - Hamlet

978 words - 4 pages In the play "Hamlet," Shakespeare's characters are confronted with the timeless question: How can one determine what is actually true from what only seems to be true? Throughout the play, the theme of appearance versus reality is constant. This theme is played out from the beginning, with Claudius' attempt to conceal his secret intentions; Gertrude and Ophelia masking their own truths, and finally Hamlet, who assumes the role of a madman in order

Similar Papers

This Is A Research Paper That Introduces The Well Known Huma Research Project: Human Cloning

1773 words - 8 pages It is the year 2010. As you pick up your daily issue of The New York Times, you begin to read some of the articles on the front page. The top story of the paper reads, "Germany Wins All Gold Medals at the Olympic Games: Is Cloning in Competitive Events Fair?" Other interesting articles reported on the front page include: "Rock Star and Lover's Nuclear Transplanted Child is Born" and "Former President George Bush's Cloned Heart Transplant A

Cloning Essay

2250 words - 9 pages another. And it would be best for all concerned if the subject were concluded in favor of cloning, for cloning can greatly improve, if not lengthen, the lives of many people in our nation, if not the world.One might ask how could such a conquest ever be justified? We are not talking about cloning individuals, but rather perfecting the cloning techniques, through research and experimentation, so that the scientific community can get to a point where

Human Cloning Should Not Be Banned

3678 words - 15 pages not necessarily have to develop into an entire person. The cells would be controlled so that they mature into specialized cells or even complete organs. There would be no rejection from the body since the cloned cells would have the same DNA as the donor (Nash).� Another possible medical advance that could be developed through cloning research is the diagnosis and even curing of genetic diseases such as diabetes. Before the embryo is implanted

Title: The Appalling Affects Of Cloning Author: Roy Arthur

2071 words - 9 pages to mention the amount of confusion that would occur in the process of doing so. For the next few paragraphs, this paper will elaborate upon key points of the scientific, ethical and religious issues of cloning. Each one of these issues is relevant in a person choice on determining whether or not cloning should be implemented.From a scientific point of view, many quickly conclude that the ability to clone a human being by "nuclear or stem cell