Contemporary Forced Migration Assessment 1 1511709
Syria’s refugee crisis: causes, ways of migration, abuse of human rights & human trafficking
For millions of people migration has represented the way to ensure the chance to a life away from poverty and oppression. Immigration, one of today’s most common issue, is the effect of a diverse range of factors, i.e. ethnic, economic, cultural, social (King, 2010). A recent mass migration issue, also described as the largest exodus which placed the humanitarian system under critical financial strain, is the conflict in Syria which has forced over four million people – a sixth of the population – to migrate to adjacent countries; according to the UN, it is the largest refugee crisis for a quarter of a century. With at least 7.6 million people forced away from their homes, almost half of Syrian people are either refugees or internally expatriated, the conflict created more than 220,000 victims (Jones & Shaheen - The Guardian, 2015).
As part of their roles in the UNSC (UN Security Council) with the contribution of the International Syria Support Group, many countries participated in a peace process which intended to end the violence and attain political transition away from Assad. One of the participating countries in this process was United Kingdom. Moreover, the UK led the adoption of three resolutions on the human rights situation in Syria (Home Office, 2016).
The statistics regarding Syrian displacement are staggering – and the figures continue to increase. Because of the tragedy of Syria’s war and the stages of displacement of its population reflects specific limitations in our area which frequently mirror similar global patterns (Al Hussein, 2018).
Causes of forced migration
With the rising revolts in Syria in 2011, an exodus in huge numbers has arisen. The disorder and violence have triggered a mass migration to destinations both within the area and beyond. The current "refugee crisis" has intensified hard and its influence is spreading from bordering countries toward Europe. The Syrian crisis is one of the main cause for a growth in displacement and the resulting dire humanitarian condition in the area. As the conflicts haven’t shows any signs of stoppage in the close future, it is a continuous increase in the number of Syrians escaping their homes. However, questions on the upcoming effects following the Syrian crisis are still to be answered (Sirkeci et al, 2015).
With 6.45 million displaced people inside Syria, makes this the largest Internal Displacement Persons calamity in the world. In addition, the number of refugees from Syria continues to increase. The Syrian crisis is a current armed civil war between militants devoted to the Ba'ath regime and those opposing them. Fatalities caused by the conflicts in Syria pointed to 470,000, according to reports from 2016. A projected 4.5 million refugees have escaped the country, many to bordering countries such as Lebanon and Jordan. In addition, more than 6 million people are projected to be displaced internally within Syria, continuously trying to escape the country (BBC, 2018). Migrants followed escape ways into Europe from Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia, presenting to European leaders and policymakers with one of the biggest challenge since the debt crisis (Park, 2015).
The deliberate targeting of civilians and the fiasco of parties to the war to defend civilians are reported to be the main roots of displacement. Furthermore, people are ever more pushed to escape because of failing services, including poor health care and loss of source of revenue among rising living costs. Numerous displacements are a prominent feature of the Syria conflict as combat zones keep fluctuating and once safe areas became involved in conflict. Episodes of internally displaced persons being targeted and displaced again have been noted (Home Office, 2016).
Human Rights Situation
The International Organization for Migration demanded Europe the most unsafe end for irregular migration around the world, and the Mediterranean the world's most risky border crossing point. As the impact of Syrian emergency on host countries surges, so does the request for the analyses of the needs for development and protection in these countries (Sirkeci et al, 2015).
Yet, despite the escalating human toll, the joint response from the European Union to its present migrant influx has been ad hoc and more concentrated on securing the coalition's borders than on defending the human rights of migrants and refugees. However, with nationalist parties controlling many of the member countries and alarms about Islamic terrorism approaching large across the mainland, it remains uncertain if the bloc or its participant states would be able to implement lasting asylum and immigration reforms (Park, 2015).
The human rights condition in Syria in 2015 continued to decline as conflict increased. The regime continued to pledge human rights abuses on a large measure, persistently violated international humanitarian law and failed to fulfil with many UN Security Council determinations. Regime forces continued to randomly arrest, disappear, and torture captives, moreover, many of them have died in detention (Home Office, 2016).
Cases of human trafficking in relation to Syria’s crisis
The spring of 2011 brought anti-government protests across Syria being saw with a violent response from President Assad’s severe regime. This became the substance vital to trigger the Syrian Civil War which has led to the displacement of more than half of the country’s population. The danger of trafficking to desperate refugees, running away from their war-ravaged country is now leading to “patterns and economies of trafficking” being “established and nourished” (Dhaliwal, 2016).
A projected twenty-one million people have fallen victim to the criminal enterprise of human trafficking around the globe. Though victim demographics run the scale, there is one common factor - vulnerability to exploitation. Following Syrian crisis, around 4.8 million people have been rendered refugees and most of them are very exposed to human trafficking. According to UNICEF, children of three years old are working and more than 2.8 million do not have contact to education. The U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees labelled the crisis as the “biggest humanitarian and refugee crisis of our time.” Host nations’ substructures are fastening under the tension, obliging refugees to depend on smugglers, unfaithful migrant routes, and impossible border crossings in a constant search for shield (Buchan, 2016).
Refugees need safety and hosting until a strong solution is possible, which for those who decide to come back must be under safe, unpaid and honourable conditions. It must be created the political will and global deployment that are required to support displaced people and host similar communities and must also better resource the work of local humanitarian organisations helping displaced Syrians.
Many groups and people have welcomed and helped the refugees. However, their onset in low pay and exposed communities also aggravates existing difficulties and creates new rigidities, especially regarding employment, salaries and exploited infrastructure. Unhappily, some host states might eventually reach a breach point, and might end up closing their doors to new refugees. Contributor and sympathy lethargy could lead to more preventive reception and accommodating policies within and beyond the Middle East, as fear, anger and even desperation asserts themselves (Al Hussein, 2018).
The Syrian refugee flood undoubtedly has intensified pre-existing economic and labour market encounters facing host societies including high unemployment and large casual markets, while the vast population increase has produced a massive pressure on resources, services and infrastructure. However, there is also an increasing body of research that suggests the crucial role Syrian refugees’ play in inspiring host economies and even defending host economies from nearly of the wider provincial economic influences of the Syrian war. Indirectly, the rise in humanitarian aid and expenses in conjunction with Syrian investment has subsidised to a positive result of job making and consumer payments on food, payments and services amongst local economies. Yet, host administrations answers to date have progressively limited access to recognized work for Syrian refugees, unquestionably paralyzing the amplified economic input Syrian refugees could make if allowed to work. Moreover, boundaries on formal labour are creating huge suffering, together with labour exploitation, child labour abuse and poverty for refugees and a fight to the bottom in wages in the casual sector, which disturbs the most helpless host communities (International Rescue Committee, 2016).
· Al Hussein, N. (2018) relief.int: Forced Migration Review Issue 57 February 2018: Syrians in displacement [online] Available at: https://reliefweb.int/report/syrian-arab-republic/forced-migration-review-issue-57-february-2018-syrians-displacement [accessed at: 03/03/2018]
· BBC (2018) Causes and impacts relating to forced and voluntary migration [online source] Available at: https://www.bbc.com/education/guides/z8g334j/revision/4 [accessed at: 18/03/2018]
· Buchan, R (2016) humanrightsfirst.org: The Syrian Refugee Crisis: A Greenhouse for Human Trafficking [online] Available at: https://www.humanrightsfirst.org/blog/syrian-refugee-crisis-greenhouse-human-trafficking [accessed at: 11/03/2018]
· Dhaliwal, G. (2016) Lacuna Economy: Smuggled and Exploited: Human Trafficking and Refugees. [online source] Available at: https://lacuna.org.uk/migration/smuggled-exploited-human-trafficking-refugees/ [accessed at: 07/03/2018]
· Home Office (2016) Country Information and Guidance - Syria: the Syrian Civil War [online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/566270/CIG_Syria_security_and_humanitarian.pdf [Accessed at: 07/03/2018]
· International Rescue Committee (2016) Policy brief: Impact of Syrian refugees on host communities [online source] Available at: https://www.rescue.org/report/policy-brief-impact-syrian-refugees-host-communities [accessed at: 03/03/2018]
· Jones, S. & Shaheen, K. (2015) The Guardian: Syrian refugees: four million people forced to flee as crisis deepens [online source]Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/jul/09/syria-refugees-4-million-people-flee-crisis-deepens [accessed at: 18/03/2018]
· King, R. et al (2010) The Atlas of Human Migration. Earthscan: Brighton
· Park, J (2015). Europe's Migration Crisis [online report] available at: https://www.pravo.unizg.hr/_download/repository/semiunar_migrants.docx [accessed at: 11/03/2018]
· Sirkeci, I., Yazgan, P. & Eroğlu, D. (2015) Syrian Crisis and Migration. Transnational Press: London