This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Corruption Essay

4519 words - 19 pages

Untitled

"How plausible are the assumptions that the recipes for controlling corruption contain about the causes of corruption and the way corruption should be defined?"

Corruption is prevalent in all nations of the world, regardless of political system, development status or cultural heritage. Any solution that combats corruption must transform corruption from a high benefit, low cost enterprise to a low benefit, high cost risk. The literature on corruption presents multiple solutions or "recipes" for controlling corruption, the central ones being transparency, competition, privatization, and while less overtly identified by the scholars, personnel ...view middle of the document...

Both of these groups supported different types of regimes in different eras, but in return for favors from the government. In its most extreme form, corruption may extend to kleptocracy or "rule by thieves" meaning that any interaction with government officials will involve corruption, often without the pretense of honest service. Transparency International identified Former Indonesian President Suharto, Former Phillippine President Ferdinand Marcos, and Former Nigerian President Sani Abacha as three of the most self-enriching leaders of kleptocracies, each allegedly stealing billions of USD from their nations. Clearly, corruption is universal; however, this questions the normative assumption that corruption is an aberration from an otherwise appropriately operating political system.

While the literature agrees on the forms of corruption, it lacks agreement upon a standard definition for the term corruption, which ultimately limits its conversation. Tanzi (1995) and Transparency International (1995) present corruption as the intentional noncompliance with the concept of "arm's length," which means that personal and family relationships should not play a role in economic decisions by private economic agents or government officials. Nye offers a formalized definition of corruption referred to by many authors which states, "[c]orruption is behavior which deviates from the formal duties of a public role because of private-regarding (personal, close family, private clique) wealth or status gains: or violates rules against the exercise of certain types of private-regarding influence." Heywood (1997) suggests that any definition of corruption cannot be solely legal because those definitions are socially defined, and furthermore, they will not allow cross-national comparison. Philp (1997) argues that any definition of corruption presupposes the notion of an uncorrupt politics, which he and Heywood both agree to be a problematic, normative statement. However, Philp's argument also means that the definition of political corruption will vary by the nature of the political system, and he particularly cites the difference of application in democratic and non-democratic polities.

The literature clearly is debating what the definition of corruption should be, but centers around the ability of any definition to have cross-national analytical purchase while taking into consideration cultural context. This dual nature of any corruption definition is explained by Johnston (1987), who notes the division between formal and social definitions of corruption. He argues that corruption has a formal and legal definition in addition to the social definition based on how society perceives corruption. The corruption literature needs a generic definition or basic taxonomy of corruption, even if that definition or taxonomy is later proved to be insufficient. The literature needs a starting point and baseline to which to respond. As...

Other Essays On Corruption

The Corruption Of Literature: "Madame Bovary" By Gustave Flaubert [Research Paper]

3581 words - 15 pages by Gustave Flaubert, the author explores the idea that the deceitfulness of literature in France may have devastating effects on people. Flaubert's tone and portrayal of characters in "Madame Bovary" illustrates how the corruption of literature in French society causes inconceivable dreams and eventual disillusionment among the people. The critical tone with which Flaubert describes the effects French literature emphasizes its demeaning

poopins Essay

479 words - 2 pages as stupid as this cause the collapse of Animal Farm? Of course not. Instead, we should be preparing defenses and ambushes for any future attacks from Mr. Jones and work on sustaining this state of luxury away from man and corruption. Working on the windmill would only bring us closer to man. It would bring us closer to the days of forced labor and injustice.If we were to finish the windmill, the benefits it would bring us are not worth the time

The Significance of Color in The Great Gatsby

567 words - 3 pages In his novel The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald used the colors green, white, and yellow for symbolism-representing money, innocence, and corruption respectively. The use of symbolic color occurs throughout the novel, helping give a better understanding and description of characterization and setting.In literature, green is often used to symbolize money, envy, and in Gatsby, Jay Gatsby's love for Daisy Buchanan. Fitzgerald most often used

The Picture Of Dorian Gray

1321 words - 6 pages The Dictionary defines moral as recognizing the distinction between right and wrong. It also defines corruption as being immoral. Thus, it can be concluded that moral corruption is the inability of distinguishing between what is right and what is wrong. In The Picture of Dorian Gray, by Oscar Wilde, Dorian Gray truly portrays such a characteristic. He gradually becomes increasingly more morally corrupted as he becomes more comfortable with

Ethical Issues In Global Business

3066 words - 13 pages Table of ContentsIntroductionPage 3EthicsCorruption in the United StatesPage 3Corruption and the OlympicsPage 6Corruption AbroadPage 7Affects of CorruptionPage 8Anti-Corruption Strategies Page 10ConclusionPage 11Back Up MaterialsTransparency International, Global Corruption Report 2001Tab 1Time Trail Article: Italy, The Mani Pulite ScandalTab 2Economic Perspectives 1998, View from Stuart EizenstatTab 3Promoting the Rule of Law and Anti

Comparative Study Of "Soylent Green" And George Orwell's "Animal Farm"

1395 words - 6 pages Throughout history the glaring flaws and weaknesses of human nature have been inflamed and exacerbated repeatedly to devastating effect. Through the span of even the earliest human civilizations and even more so in modern society, greed has proven to be our worst flaw, promoting corruption within even the noblest of ideals and rendering people blind to the terrible consequences of their self indulgent fancies. The unchecked corruption within the

It is about a place called Sierra Leone - fgfgx - bffgg

841 words - 4 pages Why is Sierra Leone so poor if it is rich in diamonds? Sierra Leone is poor because of many reasons. Here are a few: Firstly Sierra Leone is poor because of the amount of corruption that goes on in Sierra Leone. Because of this corruption the people of Sierra Leone haven’t got enough basic needs to survive as even when Sierra Leone gets medical aid for free, the government sells the medicine for profit and because of this people can pass away

BONO assigment of global proverty - University of Washington Tacoma - Essay

481 words - 2 pages zone”. Corruption is one of the main culprits to poverty. We still see corruption in our governments, banks, and corporations that rather value power and profit instead of people. The top 1% control our policies that suppress the poor by giving advantages to banks and corporations. Banks are credit creators. Nations access this credit which creates the debt money that will be owed back to the bank. Attached to this debt money is compounded

the devious character in shakespheres hamlet - trinity - essay

609 words - 3 pages Charlie Webster – 4A3 Power is a common theme throughout the play Hamlet. King Claudius is one of the plays most powerful characters and with power comes corruption. Claudius is a corrupting force that effect most character in the play such as Hamlet, Gertrude, Rosencrantz, Guildenstern, Polonius and Ophelia. At the beginning of the play we become aware that the King is dead and Claudius has been crowned the new king making him the most powerful

Indrawati Joe Instructor Mr. Bac Sierra English 90 2 July

929 words - 4 pages the country; we were saved. With such as attitude, we know that something was up behind this. As we all know that corruption and nepotism were two common problems that often happened in this world. Former President Suharto and his administration had badly operated corruption and nepotism for thirty-two years during his regime. This custom had rooted all over the foundation of the government. With the result that corruption and nepotism were hardly

Police Brutality

859 words - 4 pages Police Brutality Police brutality has been a problem in society ever since we can remember. Even though police brutality is a subject people don't want to talk about, we have to realize that no matter what we do, police brutality, police corruption, racism, and politics are components of police brutality.Police Brutality involves police misuse of physical and mental force such as: the use of physical and deadly force, chronic verbal abuse of

Similar Papers

Corruption In Argentina Essay

1147 words - 5 pages been in violation with Argentinian Law. These same police agencies have also been accused of Accepting kickbacks from large scale criminal operators, such as drug cartel, in exchange for lenient enforcement in specific areas of the country. In 2008 a survey was administered by the Latin American Public Opinion Project regarding corruption amongst public officials. The survey consisted of individuals living in all prominent Latin American

Deterring Corruption By Prison Personnel Uncw Essay

2061 words - 9 pages Jacobs Introduction Corruption happens in the U.S Prison system in many different ways. In many cases the simplest type of corruption is what we may see on TV such as officers accepting bribes that include drugs or sexual encounters, officers sneaking weapons in for inmates, medications, and basically favors that may benefit both the officer and inmate. In different cases the bosses within the jails as well as directors have been blamed for

Corruption In Removalist Essay

370 words - 2 pages Identify, define, desciribe COLONIALISM Explain Assess (positive/negative) Link to quote "Australia has pride in the multicultural nature of its society, and this reflected in its dance" Link to a performance/ company The forming of a settlement or colony by a group of people who seek to take control of territories or countries The British civilians were shipped over to Australia. They intruded the land of the aboriginals and claimed

Is Corruption Beneficial? An Analysis Of Ncaa Men’s Basketball Programs Institutions And Development Thesis Paper

3255 words - 14 pages Is Corruption Beneficial? An Analysis of NCAA Men’s Basketball Programs Introduction: An issue that has recently come to the eyes of the NCAA is the issue of regulating illicit incentivizing of recruits to attend certain schools. An environment in which some schools are more able to land top recruits seemingly creates an unfair playing field for all schools in the NCAA. This paper will look into a history of how people have responded to