Creatine: Advantages Versus Disadvantages

1601 words - 7 pages

The highly competitive attitude of athletes today motivates many athletes to work hard to improve their ability. When their ability has peaked and a performance plateau is reached many turn to supplements to help them reach the next level.In recent years creatine seems to have become the supplement of choice. Creatine is a compound that is made in the human body and supplies energy to our muscles. Chemically it is called methylguanid-acetic acid and it is formed from the amino acids methoinine and glycine when they are combined through a chemical process (Phillips 49). It is found in abundance in foods such as meat and fish. In 1993 a creatine supplement especially designed for strength and endurance became available in the United States (Phillips 50).Creatine is used as a kind of energy source in our bodies. Although the human body produces creatine and it is found in many foods that we eat, many athletes still feel the desire for this supplement. The biggest reason for this may be that animal muscle seems to be the richest source of creatine, to get the type of results that one can get from using a supplement of creatine, a diet would have to consist of ten pounds of raw steak a day for five days (Phillips).To understand why supplementing creatine may improve strength and ability then it is important to understand the role it plays in the body. Creatine exists in two forms in the muscle; it exists as creatine and as creatine phosphate. The latter of these makes up two-thirds of the creatine supply. When muscles contract, they use a sort of fuel call adenosine triphosphate or ATP, which provides energy by releasing one of its phosphate molecules. Since there is only enough ATP in the muscle to provide energy for about ten seconds, more must be produced and this is where creatine plays a role. Creatine gives up one of its phosphate molecules to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) which in turn creates ATP to be burned as fuel. The more creatine there is in the body then the better the systems ability to create ATP and the better the ability to train muscles to their maximum potential (Sahelian).Although athletes are experimenting with many different supplements, creatine seems to have become the most popular. It is believed to achieve the best results by many users. Despite the fact that little is known about the long term effects that supplementing with large doses of creatine may have on the body (Sahelian) a great many athletes seem to have few concerns about this.Creatine supplementation might be compared to Steroids which were widely used in the 1980?s to increase body mass and strength. However, users were unaware at the time that these drugs would later be found to have numerous psychological and physiological effects, such as increased aggressive behavior and cancer of the liver (Microsoft). The discovery of the health risks associated with steroids brought about laws to make these drugs illegal and significantly reduced the number of athletes utilizing them. With steroids no longer being a safe option for performance enhancement, athletes began to look elsewhere for substances that might bring about similar results.In recent years creatine has become more popular among body builders, high school and college athletes, and even Olympic competitors. According to Arnold Schwarzenegger, former Mr. Universe, creatine has come to be regarded as a necessity by most bodybuilders (Schwarzenegger 765).Despite the opinion of various experts some athletes still swear by the supplement. Take Mark McGuire for example who, in 1998, broke the home run record previously held by Roger Maris (Verducci 30). He uses creatine in addition to other supplements. Although he has been criticized by many sports writers for this he continues to utilize the supplement.The first documented use of creatine by athletes was in 1992 at the Olympics in Barcelona. British track and field competitors were monitored with their supplements and creatine was given credit for powering several of the British athletes who were successful in winning gold medals. Shortly after this many Unites States Champion athletes started using creatine (Phillips).Though this was the first study involving athletes, the history of creatine has been documented for nearly 80 years. Since the first studies, which were conducted in the 1920?s, there has been other documentation that seems to concur with and elaborate on those findings.A 1993 study published in the Scandinavians Journal of Medicine demonstrated that creatine supplementation can significantly increase body mass, in less than one week, and that it was responsible for improved performance in high intensity intermittent exercise (Phillips 51).Many studies found creatine to be effective. One such study showed that athletes who utilized the creatine supplement were able to continue improving stamina in various exercises from thirty minutes to about thirty-seven minutes. Those in the study who were not supplementing with creatine did not show similar improvement (Dreyfuss).Dr. Ray Sahelian, who has written books on both mental and physical health, indicates that creatine is a good muscle builder to take at the start of an exercise program because it seems to increase muscle mass quickly and encourages individuals to maintain a workout program. He also points out that he isn?t aware of any other supplement that works as well as creatine at adding muscle mass (Sahelian).Even Dr. Sahelian, who seems to support the use of creatine, warns that side effects could involve anything from nausea and dizziness to diarrhea and muscle cramping. He points out that sprains and strains can also occur when athletes rapidly increase their workout regimen before their tendons and ligaments have adapted to increase the muscle size (Sahelian).Perhaps even more startling than these side effects is that creatine use can put strain on the kidneys and liver. Dr. Sahelian explains that creatine is converted to creatinine within the body and in high doses it can actually act as a toxin. He recommends that anyone with kidney disease not take creatine and he discourages any regular high dose use of creatine with anyone. He recommends a dosage of no more than three grams per day and encourages users to take a week off per month and a month off for every three to four months of use (Sahelian).Some studies support the advantages of creatine and acknowledge the results but still caution about potential side effects. Creatine supplementation can affect water and electrolyte balance and experts recommend that extra caution to consume a balanced diet be taken when supplementing with creatine. This diet should include plenty of minerals as well as plenty of water (Schwarzennegger 765).Other studies simply document effects of creatine that different people may perceive to be negative or positive depending on their own goals and expectations. An example of this is the weight gain that creatine generally causes. People who take creatine may gain an average of one to four pounds.In view of the information that is currently available about creatine it would appear that the advantages might outweigh the disadvantages. The documented research that reveals the improvement of performance, the prompt addition of lean muscle mass and the quick recovery after workouts seems quite clear.While there are contradicting opinions that must be considered that indicate there may be harmful side effects, it appears that this is the exception rather than the rule. In addition, it also seems that these negative effects are more likely to occur in those who take excessive doses or have pre-existing health problems, such as kidney disease. Since long term effects of creatine are not yet known the choice of whether or not to use creatine must be based on what information is available today. The majority of today?s research points to positive short term results but can only speculate what may be discovered in the future.Any athlete who is considering the use of creatine should not be discouraged from doing so if he or she is in good health. It is important that he or she remember that the long-term effects are not known and there are potential dangers no matter how small. Every precaution should be taken to supplement as safely as possible. The bottom line is that if athletes are in good health, follow instructions on the package of the creatine supplement they have purchased, and are aware of what precautions should be taken, then creatine will likely have more benefits than harmful effects.Works CitedDreyfuss, Ira. ?Creatine May Enhance Performance.? CBS Sportsline. 2 March 2000. 13 September 2001. wysiwyg://132 Encyclopedia Encarta 2000. Microsoft Corporation 1993-1999.Phillips, Bill. Sports Supplement Review, Third Issue. Golden, CO: Mile High Publishers, 1996.Sahelian, Ray. ?Creatine Monohydrate, Creatine Studies, Creatine Side Effects?. Ray Sahelian, M.D. 2001. 24 September 2001., Arnold. The New Encyclopedia of Modern Body Building. New York:Fireside, 1998.Verducci, Tom. ?Making His Mark?. Sports Illustrated 14 Sept.1998: 30+


strategic Management and Techonologgy week 1 - San Ignacio University - Assignment

567 words - 3 pages production runs to be economically feasible. Today, in order for businesses to succeed, management must trust in the technologies. 2. What are some advantages of technological innovations? Disadvantages? ADVANTAGES: · Improve quality of life · Create more knowledge · Improve communication DISADVANTAGES: · Create Pollution · Agricultural and fishing technologies can result in erosion, elimination of natural habitats, and depletion of ocean stocks

Housing Issue about buying and renting - Housing - Essay

597 words - 3 pages Free Most people, today, are looking forward to buying their first property. When individuals decide to buy a house those individuals would have to look at all their options and all the advantages and disadvantages that come from purchasing a house. The economy plays a huge role in the decision whether people will purchase a house, purchase a condominiums, or rent property.  An option for individuals look are looking to buy property have the option

Expressionism in modern society - 2019 - Ethics research paper

908 words - 4 pages about fact versus opinion. It allows the distinction by setting all statements of moral objectivity are nothing more than statements of opinions, allowing scientific fact to be clearer. However, these advantages cannot completely overshadow the clear downsides to Expressivist views. The disadvantages are just about as clear as the advantages as many of them are one in the same. One of these problems is that Expressivism is seemingly too tolerant

Advantages and Disadvantages of Networking - South University - Assignment

2848 words - 12 pages Albert Simmons WEEK 1 DISCUSSION Advantages and Disadvantages of Networks In this assignment, you will distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of using computing networks. You will also get familiarized with the terms associated with networks. Provide a detailed description of situations in which the use of networks benefited you as well as situations where the use of networks was a disadvantage. Share at least one situation for

Supply Chain Paper

1303 words - 6 pages to become customers. The first venue is the auction store, the second venue is the online store, and the third is online services. The internet auction store, like eBay has many advantages such as convenience, increased reach to a global market, and because this is a virtual market, no infrastructure is needed, so the cost of doing business is reduced.The disadvantages are that the bidder is left vulnerable to possible fraud because the bidder

Case Study Dell Manufacturing case study - DBA Akron University Bus 790 - Case Study

1487 words - 6 pages half months shorter than the 90 days required for the zippers.  Decision-makers generally agree that short lead times enhance competitiveness (Suzanne, 2014). 5. How should Wally think, both short-term and long-term, about sourcing in Hong Kong versus China? What kind of sourcing policy do you recommend? The information for sourcing policies is best determined by using comparisons between Hong Kong and Mainland China.  The major advantages of Hong

Strategic Directions-Formal And Informal

1536 words - 7 pages Free must ascertain the relative and potential competitive position of firms in that market or location. This will enable their company to identify potential problems, which need correcting or the need to eliminate consideration of other strategies. The next major step in the strategic planning process considers the advantages and disadvantages of various strategic alternatives. The two levels are the overall approach to the global marketplace and

Application of Ethical Leadership C206 KTP2 TASK 3 - WGU/ Application of Ethical Leadership C206 - Essay

3061 words - 13 pages Consider Before Blowing the Whistle 7 B2. The Process of Blowing the Whistle 9 C. Advantages and Disadvantages of Paying Whistleblowers 9 D. Impact of US Sentencing Guidelines on the Organization 10 D1. United States Sentencing Guidelines Culpability Factors 11 E. References 12 A. Corporate Code of Ethics Analysis A1. Corporate Social Responsibility For this purpose of this analysis, we will be discussing the established code of ethics, referred to

Global Business Plan: Coca-Cola Company - MGMT 302 - Business Plan

3826 words - 16 pages Running Head: BUSINESS PLAN 0 BUSINESS PLAN 11 The University of Baltimore Global Business Plan: Coca-Cola Company Aubree Green MGMT 302.WB July 17, 2018 Table of Content 1. Introduction (Description of Organization) 2 2. Description of Product 2 3. Description of foreign market/country 3 4. Risk Analysis of Country 4 5. Swot Analysis 10 6. Entry Strategy and Operations 11 7. Advantages 13 8. Disadvantages 13 9. Conclusion 14 1. Introduction

To What Extent Does Psychological Profiling Assist Criminal Investigations And Avoid Miscarriages Of Justice?

2895 words - 12 pages it is only over the past decade that research has developed more reliable profiling methods that justifies the recent increased frequency in profiling use (Alison et al., 2007:497).Although offender profiling has its advantages such as predicting the vulnerability or risk of an offender, thus saving the criminal justice time and money, the disadvantages are two-fold (see: Meehl, 1954). The criminal justice system is naive in when it comes to

PID Control analysis, testing and tuning - QMU - Assignment

3265 words - 14 pages Introduction: This report is written to analyze the recitation that was presented on 02.04.2013. The recitation was presented by Sena TEMEL, Semih YAĞLI and Semih GÖREN. It was mainly about P, P-D, P-I and P-I-D controllers, their digital versus continuous time realizations and their characteristics including sampling period effects on the response of digital ones. Moreover, position and velocity form of P-I-D control was modeled on the ‘Gate

America's Democracy Final Paper - Ashford University, POL - 201 - Essay

4076 words - 17 pages in our government, but there are some advantages and disadvantages in having one agency of the federal bureaucracy implement a new policy. Additionally, considering our houses of government or more specifically how the Executive branch could do a better job. As well as the interest groups that help get laws passed but sometimes are too focused on personal agendas and don’t focus on what’s best for the United States or the greater good

Voice Recognition--Fantasy Or Reality? Tech Paper

3188 words - 13 pages , which have resulted in hundreds of millions of documents of how users speak.(2)Speech-enabled technology can effectively double or even triple productivity because users can input 150 -160 words per minute versus 40-60 words per minute that skilled typists can do on a keyboard.The impact this technology will have on business istremendous. Companies with large amounts of data input can improve efficiency 50-75 percent. Smaller companies can

A Mass Spectrometer Inlet System For Sampling Gases Dissolved In Liquid Phases

4128 words - 17 pages change in oxygen concentration resulting from illumination of algal cells is shown in Fig. 7. The response time is even somewhat better if a shutter is employed. The half time for response is less than 5 sec. Figure 6 shows a plot of signal versus time for a water solution containing three isotopic species of 0, . If the differences are indeed real, they indicate a slightly faster rate of diffusion for t'he heavier isotopes. This may be due to

Scaffold Learning Approaches good or bad - Univerisity - Assignment

3594 words - 15 pages provided by scaffolding, students spend less time searching and more time on learning and discovering, resulting in quicker learning (McKenzie, 1999). III. Advantages and Disadvantages of Scaffolding One of the primary benefits of scaffolding instruction is that it engages the learner. The learner does not passively listen to information presented instead through teacher prompting the learner builds on prior knowledge and forms new knowledge