Crim 133 Paper For Notes That Are From UBC And Not Shared By Anyone - UBC - Research Paper

890 words - 4 pages

Crim 103 – Lecture 2: Developmental Risk Factors
The Developmental Pathway
· Contains
· Risk factors
· Protective factors
· We want to intervene on negative pathways
Social Risk Factors
· Poverty
· Association with delinquent peers
· Peer rejection
· Negative preschool experiences
· Low-quality after-school care
· Academic failure
· Connected to persistent, violent offending
· and victimization
· Relationship is complex
· Poverty association with other risk factors
Poverty Influences Parent Behavior
· Adds additional stressors
· Parents working 2 jobs
· May reduce nurturing and consistent parenting
· Aggressive discipline
Association with Delinquent Peers
· Peers influence social/emotional development
· Delinquency predicted by delinquency of friends
· Act in groups
3 Perspectives on Influence of Peers
· Direct result of assoc. with deviant peers
· Deviant youths seek similar peers
· Deviant youths drawn to deviant peers; amplifies already existing tendencies
Peer Rejection
· Peer acceptance important for social/psych development
· Dodge & Petit (2003):
· Children rejected for 2+ years by gr. 2
· In adolescent, 50% antisocial vs. 9% for non-neglected children
Risk Factors for Peer Rejection
· Low quality parent-child relationship
· Low quality parent-parent relationship
· Aggressive behavior
· Impulsive & disruptive behavior
· Easily angered
· Lack social & interpersonal skills
· Shy & socially withdrawn
Negative Preschool Experiences
· Low quality child care
· Indirect relationship: children at risk for poor language, cognitive skills, social/emotional level
· High quality preschool programs
· Help protect at-risk children
· Long-term benefits
Low Quality After-School Care
· Including unsupervised after-school care
· After-school programs range widely in benefits
· Some have negative effects
Academic Failure
· Early school failure (e.g., Loeber 1998) = double rate of delinquency
· 75% of state prison inmates did not complete high school (Harlow 2003)
· Reading achievement particularly important
· Lack of bonding to school; truancy
Parental and Family Risk Factors
· Single-parent households
· Parental styles & practices
· Lax parental monitoring
· Sibling relationships
· Parental psychopathology
Single-Parent Households
· Related to delinquency
· Most important = stable, secure, supportive home environment
· Positive effects of parent-child relationship in 2-parent family are stronger
Parental Practices and Styles
· Parental practices: Strategies to affect particular aspect of child
· Parental attitudes: Attitudes towards child; emotional climate
· E.g., gestures, expressions
Disciplinary Techniques
· Hoffman (1997): Categorized content, style, consistency
· Power assertion
· Love withdrawal
· Induction
· Power assertion most closely associated with delinquency
Baumrind’s 4 Parenting Styles
· Authoritarian
· Permissive
· Neglecting
· Authoritative
Parental Monitoring
· Awareness of child’s friends, activities, whereabouts
· Str...

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