Critical Thinking Term Notes Essay

2659 words - 11 pages

The Starting Point.The unexamined life is not worth living - SocratesKnow Thyself - Oracle at DelphiSomething to think aboutWould you rather know the truth; how things really are without a doubt.What influences Identity?culture - the era in which you live, the place you live (geography)-genetics - inherited dispositions-school-religion-family-friends-life experiences-tradition-mediaBirth Order(rd Born to Rebel by Frank Sulloway)Oldest:responsible, aggressive, leaderOnly Child :mature, relates to adults, leaderMiddle:diplomat, sociable, tender-heartedYoungest:creative, innovative, initiates changeEffect on media on attention span:What many people today perceive to be dullness in teachers, ...view middle of the document...

Eran Zaidel (U of California): complimentarity of cortices-Subsequent research showed that when people developed an area they previously considered weak, all areas of mental performance improved-Evidence of history?Leonardo da Vinci-highly accomplished in disciplines of art, sculpture, physiology, general science, architecture, mechanics, anatomy, physics, invention, meteorology, geology, engineering?The Production Phase (RB)-non-verbal, symbolic, intuitibe responses-produces more ideas, better ideas-sees problems from different perspectives-adventurous, imaginative, outrageous-?creative thinking?The Judgement Phase (LB)-language, analysis, logic, sequence-examination, evaluation-makes important distinctions-bases conclusion on evidence-?analytical thinking?The Point is??-our strengths represent areas of potential that we have successfully developed-our weaknesses represent areas of our potential that are ?asleep?-with exercise, weak areas will improve-role of habits and attitudes (see p. 17 BF)Why be a critical thinker??Arguments, like men, are often pretenders? ? Plato?The greatest deception men suffer from is their own opinions? ? Leonardo da VinciIQ and Natural Intelligence1.Berkeley Study: high IQ?s not necessarily independent thinkers; independent in action; possess good sense of humor; appreciative of beauty; reasonable; original; flexible; astute.2.IQ tests should be sensitive to:a)the brain being testedb)the test itself andc)the resultsBeyond Feelings-feelings hinder critical thinking when they blind us?-feelings can co-exist with critical thinking in ways that are natural and helpful-self-awareness ? ?know thyself?Basic Critical Thinking ActivitiesInvestigation: finding evidence that is both relevant and sufficientInterpretation: coming up with a reasonable explanation based on the evidenceJudgment: forming a conclusion using logical guidelinesKinds of Evidence-personal experience (anecdotal-unpublished and published reports-eyewitness testimony-celebrity testimony-expert opinion-experiment-statistics-survey-formal observation-research reviewSummary ? ?Investigation?-anecdotal ? personal-experimental-statistical-testimonial-is it relevant?When is Evidence Sufficient?1.When it permits a judgment to be made with certainty.2.If one view of the issue has been shown to have the force of probabilityArguments ? A line of reasoning offered in support or refutation of a viewpoint.-basic structure: Premises and ConclusionGood Arguments have?1.True Premises2.Correct Process ? the conclusion must flow logically from the premises.Definition: ?Valid Argument?A valid argument is one in which the conclusion follows inescapably from the assertions (premises).Definition: ?Sound Argument?A sound argument is one in which the assertions (premises) made are accurate and the conclusion follows inescapably from those assertions.Opinion-is everyone entitled to theirs?-difference between personal preference and considered judgment-are we free to hold any...

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