Critically Evaluate The Claim That Victims Of Crime Precipitate Their Victimisation. Criminology Essay

2813 words - 12 pages

Name: kaanushan shanthakumar
Programme of study: Criminal Justice & Criminology
Stage: 2
Module: SO745
Assignment title: Essay
Date assignment due: 03/09/2018
Word count: 2700
Tick this box if you have an ILP*: ☐
You are reminded that all coursework assignments (with the exception of presentations and certain reports) must be submitted using this template. Work not submitted on this template will not be marked.
It is your responsibility to ensure that the correct version of your work is uploaded through Turnitin in advance of the deadline.
*ILPs will only be taken into account during marking if they specifically refer to the assessment of submitted work.
Some people deliberately or recklessly put themselves at risk. Critically evaluate the claim that victims of crime precipitate their victimisation.
Most criminal act comprises of an offender and a victim, the victim not necessarily having to be visible or an individual. Up until fairly recently most theories and studies were developed around the notion that the offenders were solely to blame and responsible for a crime, but of recent, theories and studies have been developed wherein they examine what role the victim plays in their own victimisation. This premise has attracted so much attention that this has lead to a new field of research, victimology. Victimology aims to study the relationship between the victim and the offender, or the victimizer, and goes onto look at how a victim may precipitate, i.e., contribute to their own victimasation. There are two key schools of thought when it comes to victimology, positivist victimology and critical victimology. Critical victimology branches out from the ideologies of Marxism and Feminism, which focus on issues such as patriarchy and structural factors that influence whether a victim is labelled a victim, focusing on the states power in making a victim. Another major school of thought is called positivist victimology. According to Miers (1989), positivist victimology is made up of three parts;
“the identification of factors in individuals or their environment that conduce to a non-random risk of victimisation, a concentration on inter-personal crimes of violence, and the identification of victims who may be held to have contributed to their victimisation.” – David Miers (1989, p1)
That being said, positivist victimology, is an approach most relevant to victims percipitating their victimisation, as this approach focuses on the individual rather than external factors.
There are a few key theories which examine the positivist approach of victimology which examine the relationship between the victim and their role in a crime, and one of the most earliest theories that look at this is called victim precipitation theory. Victim precipitation theory, in its simplest definition, argues that the victim actually initiates the crime due to their actions or choices, ultimately meaning that they play a major role in their own victimisation . A ‘father...


Examine The Claim That Cities Have Recently Entered A "Postmodern" Stage In Their Development

1636 words - 7 pages first grasp what the 'modern' and 'postmodern' movements entail, particularly in relation to cities, in their physical form and urban life in general.The period of modernisation fundamentally began with the Industrial Revolution and the huge economic growth that ensued. Peter Berger has clearly expressed four major characteristics of the modern age (Macionis, Plummer, 1998). The first, perhaps the most important or indeed obvious, is the gradual

Critically evaluate the evidence for and against geographical profiling - Undergraduate Psychology - Essay

1420 words - 6 pages Critically evaluate the evidence for and against geographical profiling Birmingham City University There are many possibilities that criminals can have that will affect their choice regarding their location to commit a crime. Geographic profiling is an investigative methodology that analyses the locations of a connected series of crime to determine the most credible area of an offender’s base (Rossmo, 2000). Its key purpose is to assist the

Media, Crime and Deviant Behaviour - Criminology - Essay

1664 words - 7 pages Free . Stan Cohen created the powerful concept of ‘moral panic’, when ‘mods’ and ‘rockers’ were emerged and the media by over presenting their trends, created a fear for these two subcultures. (Morgan, et al., 2012) b. Motive It has been generally believed that the scenes of unconventional behaviour and crime, displayed by the mass media could simply be a type of social learning, and may foster crime by imitation or arousal effects. Media by displaying

Critically evaluate the evidence for a link between life events and illness. - Health Psychology - Essay

1179 words - 5 pages Free Stress and Health Exam question: Critically evaluate the evidence for a link between life events and illness. Stress was first defined by Hans Selye in 1936, where he described stress as “the non-specific response of the body to any demand for change”. There are different approaches to stress such as stress as a transaction, which focuses on the way an individual assesses a stressor and how this affects the way they would cope or respond to the

John Wayne Gacy biological theory - Crime and Criminology - Essay

1830 words - 8 pages . John W. Gacy is an American serial killer and rapist of at least 33 victims in his life. He was born in Chicago, Illinois where, later in his life, came back to do the gruesome unforgiving acts. He would dress up as a clown and use that to lure his victims in and attack. He mostly went after teenage boys and young men who had either run away from home or were separated from their parents for a little bit. He is one of the most horrific serial

Discuss the claim that humans have a need to belong. - UCL Psychology BSc - Essay

1163 words - 5 pages who were going to join the group rated themselves as higher in environmental awareness than did the other students who head the same discussion. This shows that participants’ own opinions moved towards the group’s position due to their need to belong to a group. Another argument that supports the claim that humans need to belong since social exclusion (which results in loneliness) causes lower mood or even sense of physical pain. Therefore, social

Evaluate the view that the Nazi consolidation of power was a legal process - Modern history yr 11 KCAHS - Essay

1010 words - 5 pages Free Evaluate the view that the Nazi consolidation of power between January 1933 and August 1934 was a ‘legal process’. (10 Marks) The period between January 1933 and August 1943 was a key period for Hitler and the Nazi party to consolidate power in the form of a dictatorship. Hitler’s change of strategy to gain power legally was an effective process as he created a legal image in the eyes of the public. For example the appearance of legality was

"The Microsoft Monopoly Should Be Broken Up." Evaluate This Claim Using Economic Theory And Evidence On The Welfare Effects Of Monopoly And Competition

2010 words - 9 pages In the United States, monopoly policy has been built on the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. This prohibited contracts or conspiracies to restrain trade or, in the words of the later Clayton act, to monopolise commerce. The claim that a company should be broken up is clearly not a new concept in America. In the early 20th century this law was called upon to reduce the economic power wielded by so-called "robber barons," such as JP Morgan and John

Evaluate the view that Utilitarianism continues to offer a useful way of resolving moral dilemmas - St ambrose college, 6fr - Essay

1523 words - 7 pages Free OLIVER NICHOLLS Evaluate the view that Utilitarianism continues to offer a useful way of resolving moral dilemmas. Use knowledge and understanding across your course of study to answer this question. In your response to this question, you must include how developments in religion and ethics have been influenced by one of the following: · Philosophy of religion · New testament studies · The study of a religion Utilitarianism is a relativist and

Critically assess the view that religious language is meaningless - year 11 - essay

834 words - 4 pages Critically assess the claim that religious language is meaningless (June 2011) Religious language is used by believers to communicate ideas about God, faith and practice that are not available to all outside the religious community. For some, religious language is used as a tool to serve various purposes, such as to educate the religious community about God and His greatness, therefore serving a meaningful function. However, others regard

Evaluate the interpretations in both of these - Westminster - Essay

530 words - 3 pages Evaluate the interpretations in both of the two passages and explain which one you think is more convincing in explaining why the Cultural Revolution began. (30) Passage A suggests that Mao wanted to make society obey his orders and wanted to intimidate his party into being loyal Maoists, whilst Passage B suggests that Mao wanted a permanent revolution in order to make his party loyal Maoists, this was driven by the Red Guard and the PLA as it

This Essay Deals With All That Leads To A Life Of Crime

772 words - 4 pages Free One must ask themselves what endangers a community? What threatens the essence of life and well being in the community? Crime! Crime endangers the community, crime kills the future and handicaps the present. One must ask themselves, what major factor produces crime? If one truly wishes to reach and understand the answer, they only have to walk to the corner of their blocks.On that corner, like so many other corners within Brooklyn, there is a


3035 words - 13 pages Free monumental opportunities to educate themselves on the customs and resources of the Indigenous people of the New World. Although the goals differed from group to group, the ambition of all explorers was for successful economic gain with the goal to discover, claim, and foreign countries of their bountiful resources. However, economic gain was not the only ambition into the Americas, others for example, had goals of cultural and spiritual

Critically discuss the ways in which the personality of a leader might affect employee turnover - Business - Essay

2244 words - 9 pages by an individual can be very different; often a manager’s chosen style of leadership is dependent on their personality. In publisher Pearson’s 5th edition AS/A Level Business textbook, it is stated that there are four main leadership styles: - Autocratic leadership - Paternalistic leadership - Democratic leadership - Laissez-fair leadership For the purposes of wanting to critically analyse in more comparative detail, to come out with a clearer

Evaluate the contribution of interview research to our understanding of friendship. - Undergraduate Psychology - Essay

1102 words - 5 pages Free Evaluate the contribution of interview research to our understanding of friendship. The use of interview has long been used by researchers to elicit information from questions in order to better understand a topic from that person's perspective. In relation to friendship, interviews are a very useful tool as it allows researchers to give rich detail on their thoughts and feelings in response to the question. Despite this, being based on