Cultural Achievements Of The Mesopotamian Empire And Ancient Egypt Humanities Essay

1248 words - 5 pages

Ancient Egypt was one of the earliest civilization that concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization started after political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes (often identified with Narmer). But people from all over the world knew Egypt best for their famous monumental sculpture of ancient Egypt's tombs and pyramids. The pyramids are notorious for its shape that is thought to represent the primordial mound form, which the Egyptians believed is how the earth was created. The most famous of all is the great pyramids, that was built for the Egyptian pharaoh Khufu. It was also thought to be representative of the descending rays of the sun, and most pyramids were faced with polished, highly reflective white limestone, to give them a brilliant appearance when viewed from a distance. In many tombs of pharaohs or nobles, the sphinx which is a spiritual figure of the creatures was often included in tomb and temple complexes. The ancient Egyptians believed when death came, it was only a transition to another realm where, if one were justified by the gods, one would live eternally in a paradise known as The Field of Reeds. The journey to the afterlife was long, and so the Egyptians, especially Pharaohs were known to be buried with food, clothing, jewelry, even boats to helped them pass into the afterlife. And inside those tombs, they also did a unique burial ritual for the bodies of the dead. It is unique because the Egyptians are the first ones to do mummification on dead bodies. The process of mummification is not simple or instant. First, they had to pull out part of the brain through the nose. Then, remove all internal organs and let it dry. Place the lungs, intestines, stomach, and liver inside canopic jars, but the heart must be left inside the body. Cover the corpse with salt for 70 days after 40 days stuff the body with linen to give it a human shape. Finally, the corpse will be Placed in a sarcophagus (a type of box like a coffin). Based on the documentary of archaeologists, the interior walls of the tomb will be covered in paintings — particularly Osiris, god of the afterlife and underworld and Anubis, god of mummification. Uniquely, Archaeologists believe that the Egyptian tend to hide the tombs of ‘embarrassing’ rulers and tried to make people forget about it. This happened to Pharaoh Amenhotep IV which also known as Akhenaten; he was notorious as the Pharaoh who abandoned Egypt traditional religion and changed it into a monolatristic belief. Another thing that helped historians to learn deeper about ancient Egypt was the writings that were written throughout the civilization. Those writings documented many important things about the culture and society during that era. The writings were written on Papyrus. Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. Papyrus is first known to have been u...

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