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Cultural Studies Vs. Kritische Theorie: Populärkultur Vs. Massenkultur

4074 words - 17 pages

Cultural Studies vs. Kritische Theorie:Populärkultur vs. MassenkulturCultural Studies (CS) haben auf dem Gelände der deutschen Kultur- und Geisteswissenschaften für Aufregung gesorgt. Gerade unter den jungen WissenschaftlerInnen schien dieser Ansatz Raum zum Atmen innerhalb der stagnierenden deutschen Theorieentwicklung zu geben. Und das nicht zuletzt aus dem Grunde, weil CS die Befassung mit populärer Kultur in Aussicht stellen, sich also mit ihren Forschungsinteressen nah an die Alltagsästhetik heranwagten, ohne allerdings den Anspruch komplexer gesellschaftstheoretischer Reflexion aufzugeben.Dass die CS wie der gesamte Poststrukturalismus in den siebziger und ...view middle of the document...

Fühlten sich Adornos Adepten in der Kunst- und Kulturwissenschaft mit ihrer tendenziellen Verachtung von Populärkultur als austauschbarer "Massenkultur" und leicht zu durchschauendem Massenbetrug an einer vorgeblich bewusstlosen Bevölkerungsmasse auch noch bis in die achtziger Jahre bestätigt, fragten die britischen CS bereits in den fünfziger Jahren nach den konkreten Lebensweisen der unterprivilegierten Klassen. Raymond Williams, einer der Gründerväter der CS, entwickelt in dieser Zeit ein Konzept von Kultur als "Lebensweise", die sich in der Alltagspraxis täglich reproduziert und sehr wohl in ökonomische, gesellschaftliche und politische Machtstrukturen eingebettet ist, sich aber nicht im orthodox-marxistischen Sinne als Überbauphänomen isolieren lässt.Seit Mitte der neunziger Jahre nun gibt es hierzulande einen Bücher-Boom, der auf der CS-Welle schwimmt. Unzählige Einführungen in das Gebiet der CS werden auf den Markt geworfen. An einigen Neuerscheinungen - zum einen Einführungen in die CS, zum anderen Studien zu CS und Fernsehanalyse, die den neuesten Stand der Forschung repräsentieren - soll hier geprüft werden, was die CS eigentlich so sexy macht.CS liefern zunächst eine stattliche Apparatur an Begriffen, wissenstheoretischen Modellen und kultursoziologischen wie -philosophischen Konzepten, die sich zu keiner einheitlichen Theorie zusammenschließen lassen. Ob empirische Einschaltquoten akkumulierend, Zuschauerinterviews per Fragebogen auswertend oder dekonstruktivistisch der Dissidenz von Popmusik nachspürend - CS geben sich offen gegenüber jedweden Ansätzen, denen es um das Verstehen kultureller Prozesse geht. Die Verabsolutierung eines Ansatzes wird grundsätzlich unter den Verdacht gestellt, blind für den Gegenstand zu sein. Output von außen ist von den CS immer erwünscht, da sie sich als ein konstitutionell offenes Projekt der Kulturbeobachtung betrachtet. Irgendwann glaubte auch hierzulande niemand mehr den ergrauten Adorno-Anhängern, dass Fun ein Stahlbad sei. Man selbst wusste es besser und fand in den Konzepten der CS erste Antworten auf die Frage, wie sich Populärkultur in Abhebung von Massenkultur definieren lässt und was das Vergnügen bei der Rezeption von Alltagskultur ausmachen könnte. Dass sich diese lustvolle Rezeption des Niveaulosen, Kitschigen und Durchschaubaren trotzdem im Rahmen kommerzieller bzw. institutioneller Machtstrategien vollzieht, fordert die ideologiekritische Konzeption der CS bei allem coolen Eklektizismus zu äußerster methodologischer Präzision heraus.Seine Brisanz zieht der CS-Ansatz aus der Erkenntnis, dass Kultur nicht ohne ein Konzept von Subjektivität zu verstehen ist. Und Subjektivität, davon gehen die CS aus, äußert sich als kommunikatives Verhalten in sprachlich-symbolischem Handeln. Adornos...

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