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Culturally Based Value Systems Essay

1340 words - 6 pages

1) Discuss the stages in the negotiation process and how culturally based value systems influence these stages. Specifically,Explain the role and relative importance of relationship building in different countriesDiscuss the various styles and tactics that can be involved in exchanging task-related informationDescribe differences in culturally based styles of persuasionDiscuss the kinds of concession strategies a negotiator might anticipate in various countriesThere are five stages in the negotiation process:a) preparation- Research must be done to develop a profile of the other collaborator in order to understand their culture and to also allow for any variables that might be encountered ...view middle of the document...

Indirect, ambiguous, protocol-conscious, and contentious describe the modus operandi of Mexico, China, Russia and France respectively in the art of negotiating. Mexicans distrust directness, the Chinese ask many questions, Russians are thoroughly prepared to deal with top executives only, and the French want to debate issues as a matter of course during negotiations.d) persuasion- During the bargaining phase of negotiations, cultures use different degrees of verbal and non-verbal tactics. Whereas countries such as Brazil promise less and command more, Americans or Japanese offer more promises and more threats.Far Eastern cultures do much behind the scenes in the negotiation process. Tactics such as offering misinformation or being ambiguous about who is in charge are not considered "dirty tricks" by foreign negotiators. Certain countries actually begin negotiations with misinformation. Rough tactics such as uncomfortable physical settings, threats, delays and histrionics such as shouting and desk-pounding are simply the way of negotiations in other countries and are sometimes employed by Americans as well. Non-verbal tactics employed by non-Western societies are subtle and culturally ingrained. These include facial gazing, touching, silent periods and interruptions. Studies have been done to help American negotiators become aware of and in tune with such behaviors and to recognize our own idiosyncrasies, some of which we share with others.e) concessions and agreement- Americans are apt to treat negotiations as they do time, in a linear fashion, starting with an extreme position and at strategic intervals, revealing pertinent information to strengthen their position and move closer to their predetermined outcome. However, in other cultures such as in the Far East, negotiating is done in a more holistic manner whereby the deal is made at the end rather than incrementally. And where Americans value a contract, the Japanese, for instance, consider it to be insulting and prefer to operate on the basis of understanding and social trust.2) Discuss the relative use of nonverbal behaviors, such as silent periods, interruptions, facial glazing, and touching by people from various cultural backgrounds. How does this behavior affect the negotiation process in a cross-cultural context?The philosophies of people determine their outlook and behavior at the negotiating table. The Japanese way is diametrically opposed to the impatience and directness of Americans. The Japanese culture of politeness dictates that time during negotiation be spent doing non-task sounding which involves polite conversation and informal communication. Their use of silent periods would seem unusual to someone from Brazil who would be animated during negotiations, spontaneous and talkative and interrupting. Whereas the Brazilian would use much touching and facial gazing, Americans and Japanese aver these tactics.4) What are some of the differences in risk tolerance around the world?...

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