Describe And Compare Classical And Instrumental Conditioning In Their Effectiveness In Explaining Learning B Sc Psychology With Cognitive Neuroscience Essay

1143 words - 5 pages

Describe and compare classical and instrumental conditioning in their effectiveness in explaining learning
Learning is a change with a lasting effect in behaviour that allows animals to acquire new skills as a result of experience and it is a continuous process that aids survival as we adapt to environmental changes. In terms of psychological theories with regards to the process of learning there are two well accredited phenomena that psychologists still use today in order to explain learning. Through the works of Ivan Pavlov and Edward Thorndike the concepts of classical and instrumental conditioning were formed. Both theories have sufficient evidence to support them and explain learning in an appropriate and understanding way which can be observed and measured empirically. Furthermore, these findings have been applied to real life settings in order to aid human learning and enhance the process to make it more efficient.
Classical conditioning involves the pairing of two stimuli: the neutral unconditioned stimulus (CS) and the biologically relevant unconditioned stimulus (US) where the CS produces no initial response from the animal and the US automatically elicits a response regardless of the situation. When both stimuli are repeatedly paired together an association forms and the CS has the power to elicit a response from the animal before the presentation of the US. This response is identified as learning because the animal has learnt to respond to a stimulus which originally did not have the same effect. Classical conditioning can be both excitatory and inhibitory. A CS that evokes a conditioned response is known as an exciter and an example of this would be the presentation of a tone which causes the animal to perform an action. Inhibitory conditioning results in learning that the stimulus presented predicts the absence of another stimulus (McSweeney & Murphy, 2014).
Classical conditioning has been demonstrated in a wide range of species and response systems. It is very common amongst animals and there are always frequent occurrences in natural situations (Turkkan 1989 as cited in (Domjan, 2005)). One of the first demonstrations of classical conditioning was carried out by S.G. Vul’fson in which he presented various substances such as dry food and sand and measured the rate of salivary flow in response to the different US. Vulf’son found that the saliva production was greater in response to the US being placed in their mouths than to the US being presented at a distance (Windholz, 1995). Another very significant example of classical conditioning is the conditioned taste avoidance learning which has largely influenced psychologists’ knowledge and understanding of learning and it is one of the most accepted forms of learning today. This research by Garcia, Kimeldorf and Koelling (1955) on rats showed that both trace and simultaneous CS-US pairings produced CTA learning, but inhibitory conditioning, when the US is presented before the CS,...

Other Essays On Describe and compare classical and instrumental conditioning in their effectiveness in explaining learning - BSc Psychology with Cognitive Neuroscience - Essay

cognitive development in young adulthood - counseling - essay

905 words - 4 pages Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood Changes in the structure of thought · Postformal thought is cognitive development past Piaget’s formal operational stage. Thinking becomes restructured in adulthood, as life is rarely as clear and emotionally manageable as one thinks it will be in adolescence. · Perry’s theory – after interviewing college students at the end of each year of college, Perry found that students gradually changed their

Psychology of Ancient Philosophers and a Hole in Aristotle's Argument on Psychology - Randolph-Macon College Philosophy - Essay

2157 words - 9 pages psychology expressed by Parmenides and his atomists successors, Plato and Socrates, and Aristotle, observing that each provides a correction to a perceived imbalance in their conceptions of their predecessors regarding the relationship between body and soul. It will argue that Aristotle’s resolution is best, but introduce a hypothetical case of patients in comatose states with and without brain activity to illustrate the limits of Aristotle’s

"Lord Of The Flies": Compare Any Two Characters And Their Relation To The Theme Of Power In The Novel

1236 words - 5 pages is the anarchy. To begin with, Ralph who is the idealistic chief of society has the objective of establishing law and order on the island. In the second assembly he announced to the boys," whoever is holding the conch gets to talk." Needless to say he wanted to organize the party of boys with perspectives as the civilized world so that things can get done. Next, Ralph builds huts on the beach as shelters for the boys. Mainly because Ralph is

Discuss the claim that humans have a need to belong. - UCL Psychology BSc - Essay

1163 words - 5 pages for their own behavior, especially for those who strongly identify with the group. As a result, people tend to think and act in group-typical ways- opinions/feelings/behaviours move towards those typical of group. Mackie (1986) had students listen to a discussion which one group presented pro-environmental attitudes. Some students were about to join the group voicing the positive attitudes, while others knew they would not be joining. Students

classical conservatism and liberalism - pos1001 - essay

485 words - 2 pages 1 Thomas Political Ideology Wide Thomas POS1001 Boris F. Bastidas 05/30/18 Political Ideology Political ideologies are a set of rules, regulations, values or beliefs that are held by a particular individual or group of individuals that defines or rather sets the standards on how the society should behave and present a guideline for a certain social order. With this in mind, it is consequently important to state that every person in the society

Compare The Ways In Which Madame Loisel And The Daughter In 'Two Kinds' Respond To The Pressures And Expectations Of Their Families And Societies

753 words - 4 pages . Her mother tries to make he a wonder kid and to change the way the daughter is. The mother tries to make her daughter a wonder kid and the daughter starts to respond in a way that she just doesn't care. Then in some time the daughter be really tiered of the testes that the mother is making her that and the fact that the mother is trying to change her. And so, she starts to take short cut, and with the only intention to stay the way she it, the

Effectiveness of Legal and on-Legal Responses in Relation to the Use of Child Soldiers - Sydney Boys High School - Essay

1258 words - 6 pages Effectiveness of Legal and on-Legal Responses in Relation to the Use of Child Soldier, in relation to the Sudan People's Liberation Army For centuries, children have been kidnapped and forced to join military forces with the promise of a better standard of life. Often being between the ages of 12 and 18, these children are too young to fully comprehend the fallacies they are being fed. In the process of becoming a soldier, many of their rights

discuss each contributing factors that could influence the onset of an eating disorder - BSC Hons Nutrition and Health - Essay

2790 words - 12 pages , female, middle to upper class and resides in Europe or North America (Weissman.2007). Eating disorders are not subjective to certain age groups, according to Micali et al (2017) 15% of women middle aged have experienced some form of eating disorder at some point in their life, with 3% reporting an incident in the last 12 months. The risk associated with eating disorders include mortality, anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rates in

"discuss one or more biases in thinking and decision making" - 22 MARKS - DCGS - Psychology Essay

1198 words - 5 pages Hannah Moran 6D1 Discuss one or more biases in thinking and/or decision making. [22] Bias refers to the disproportionate weight in favour of or against one thing. Psychologists have studies a range of cognitive biases in order to determine their roles within thinking and decision making. Cognitive bias specifically is an error in thinking that affects the decisions and judgments that people make. Thinking and decision making are both closely

How useful are personality tests in measuring personality? - Personality and Individual Differences - Psychology - Essay

1881 words - 8 pages measure personality in a scientific way as opposed to generic categorisation of basic qualities such as introversion versus extroversion? Psychological assessments can be implemented to measure personality such as two highly effective measures: the Myer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Big Five Factor Model of Personality. However, which is the most useful? Personality tests provide individual’s with insight about their psychological identity

Stress in College Athletes and Non-Athletes - Psychology - APA Style Essay

1327 words - 6 pages challenges arising from athletic, educational and social demands. Several freshmen student-athletes are unprepared to with success cater to these stressors, and information regarding those specific factors resulting in heightened stress levels is crucial within the designing of effective intervention programs. Hence, the aim of this beta study was to spot those stressors known by Division-I freshmen athletes as most current throughout their 1st

Similar Papers

Aspirations In Life And The Things That Come With It Bsc English Essay

433 words - 2 pages journey to success. Traveling to California and having the opportunity to be accepted into a major university like UCLA has been my dream as a child. I plan to major in pre-med as an undergraduate. I’ve been inspired to become a dermatologist and assist others with their skin, hair, and nails condition. “We only have what we give.” –Isabel Allende I just don’t plan to give what I have to offer, but I want to leave a legacy for people to remember me

Discuss Idiographic And Nomethetic Approach In Psychology Psychology Essay

1011 words - 5 pages Discuss idiographic and nomothetic approaches in psychology. (16 Marks) The idiographic approach in psychology, derives from the Greek ‘idios’ meaning ‘private and personal’. The idiographic approach attempts to describe the nature of an individual. This approach studies people as unique entities, each with their own subjective experiences, motivations and value. The idiographic approach is associated with methods such as case studies e.g

Gender Roles: Describe The Gender Roles In "A Rose For Emily" And "Papas Waltz" In Their Respective Stories

925 words - 4 pages on the roles deemed accurately for men and women. In "A Rose for Emily," we see the effects of socially given gender roles for a women along with the same social perception upon the male adult in the poem "My Papa's Waltz."Both show images of gender roles in their respective ways.For many generations status has been the envy and the demise of many people. William Faulkner intriguingly depicts status, society, and the role of women in his short

Classical Music In The Renassaince Era Lcc Classical Music And Its Causes

983 words - 4 pages be introduced to classical music, composers, and to its history, but not necessarily to the culture it can create in their lives. Therefore, in today’s society, classical music has become a less traditional art form. Families today no longer enforce the learning and listening of classical music as part of their culture. As a result of this, this is causing classical music to lose its viability of being a recognizable art form in today’s society