Describe And Compare Classical And Instrumental Conditioning In Their Effectiveness In Explaining Learning B Sc Psychology With Cognitive Neuroscience Essay

1143 words - 5 pages

Describe and compare classical and instrumental conditioning in their effectiveness in explaining learning
Learning is a change with a lasting effect in behaviour that allows animals to acquire new skills as a result of experience and it is a continuous process that aids survival as we adapt to environmental changes. In terms of psychological theories with regards to the process of learning there are two well accredited phenomena that psychologists still use today in order to explain learning. Through the works of Ivan Pavlov and Edward Thorndike the concepts of classical and instrumental conditioning were formed. Both theories have sufficient evidence to support them and explain learning in an appropriate and understanding way which can be observed and measured empirically. Furthermore, these findings have been applied to real life settings in order to aid human learning and enhance the process to make it more efficient.
Classical conditioning involves the pairing of two stimuli: the neutral unconditioned stimulus (CS) and the biologically relevant unconditioned stimulus (US) where the CS produces no initial response from the animal and the US automatically elicits a response regardless of the situation. When both stimuli are repeatedly paired together an association forms and the CS has the power to elicit a response from the animal before the presentation of the US. This response is identified as learning because the animal has learnt to respond to a stimulus which originally did not have the same effect. Classical conditioning can be both excitatory and inhibitory. A CS that evokes a conditioned response is known as an exciter and an example of this would be the presentation of a tone which causes the animal to perform an action. Inhibitory conditioning results in learning that the stimulus presented predicts the absence of another stimulus (McSweeney & Murphy, 2014).
Classical conditioning has been demonstrated in a wide range of species and response systems. It is very common amongst animals and there are always frequent occurrences in natural situations (Turkkan 1989 as cited in (Domjan, 2005)). One of the first demonstrations of classical conditioning was carried out by S.G. Vul’fson in which he presented various substances such as dry food and sand and measured the rate of salivary flow in response to the different US. Vulf’son found that the saliva production was greater in response to the US being placed in their mouths than to the US being presented at a distance (Windholz, 1995). Another very significant example of classical conditioning is the conditioned taste avoidance learning which has largely influenced psychologists’ knowledge and understanding of learning and it is one of the most accepted forms of learning today. This research by Garcia, Kimeldorf and Koelling (1955) on rats showed that both trace and simultaneous CS-US pairings produced CTA learning, but inhibitory conditioning, when the US is presented before the CS,...

Other Essays On Describe and compare classical and instrumental conditioning in their effectiveness in explaining learning - BSc Psychology with Cognitive Neuroscience - Essay

"Lord Of The Flies": Compare Any Two Characters And Their Relation To The Theme Of Power In The Novel

1236 words - 5 pages is the anarchy. To begin with, Ralph who is the idealistic chief of society has the objective of establishing law and order on the island. In the second assembly he announced to the boys," whoever is holding the conch gets to talk." Needless to say he wanted to organize the party of boys with perspectives as the civilized world so that things can get done. Next, Ralph builds huts on the beach as shelters for the boys. Mainly because Ralph is

Compare The Ways In Which Madame Loisel And The Daughter In 'Two Kinds' Respond To The Pressures And Expectations Of Their Families And Societies

753 words - 4 pages . Her mother tries to make he a wonder kid and to change the way the daughter is. The mother tries to make her daughter a wonder kid and the daughter starts to respond in a way that she just doesn't care. Then in some time the daughter be really tiered of the testes that the mother is making her that and the fact that the mother is trying to change her. And so, she starts to take short cut, and with the only intention to stay the way she it, the

cognitive development in young adulthood - counseling - essay

905 words - 4 pages Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood Changes in the structure of thought · Postformal thought is cognitive development past Piaget’s formal operational stage. Thinking becomes restructured in adulthood, as life is rarely as clear and emotionally manageable as one thinks it will be in adolescence. · Perry’s theory – after interviewing college students at the end of each year of college, Perry found that students gradually changed their

Psychology of Ancient Philosophers and a Hole in Aristotle's Argument on Psychology - Randolph-Macon College Philosophy - Essay

2157 words - 9 pages psychology expressed by Parmenides and his atomists successors, Plato and Socrates, and Aristotle, observing that each provides a correction to a perceived imbalance in their conceptions of their predecessors regarding the relationship between body and soul. It will argue that Aristotle’s resolution is best, but introduce a hypothetical case of patients in comatose states with and without brain activity to illustrate the limits of Aristotle’s

Effectiveness of Legal and on-Legal Responses in Relation to the Use of Child Soldiers - Sydney Boys High School - Essay

1258 words - 6 pages Effectiveness of Legal and on-Legal Responses in Relation to the Use of Child Soldier, in relation to the Sudan People's Liberation Army For centuries, children have been kidnapped and forced to join military forces with the promise of a better standard of life. Often being between the ages of 12 and 18, these children are too young to fully comprehend the fallacies they are being fed. In the process of becoming a soldier, many of their rights

classical conservatism and liberalism - pos1001 - essay

485 words - 2 pages 1 Thomas Political Ideology Wide Thomas POS1001 Boris F. Bastidas 05/30/18 Political Ideology Political ideologies are a set of rules, regulations, values or beliefs that are held by a particular individual or group of individuals that defines or rather sets the standards on how the society should behave and present a guideline for a certain social order. With this in mind, it is consequently important to state that every person in the society

Compare geometry in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia - History of Mathematics - Essay

1887 words - 8 pages 1 Compare geometry in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia February 14, 2019 1 Introduction Geometry is the branch of mathematics concerned with the properties and relations of points, lines, surfaces, solids, and higher dimensional objects [1]. Geometric concepts were being utilised as early as 3000 BCE by the Egyptians and Babylonians, it was a beneficial approach to enhance social well being of the civilisations such as tax collection, building

Compare the different documents used in the selection and recruitment process of a organisation - Newvic - Essay

1713 words - 7 pages and your personal details they can also add a cover letter with their cv. JOB ADVERT A job advert is an announcement about a specific job which is available. It is usually created by the human resources manager of Waitrose. The main purpose of a job advertisement is to bring in the ideal candidate for the job role and it reduces time interviewing candidates who don’t have the right skill according to the job description. A job advert should

NuChildren and their respective mothers in Jakarta' nutrition and environment. - BA business management - essay

435 words - 2 pages Children and their mothers in Jakarta followed a very poor and unhealthy lifestyle and nutrition. In addition, poverty and unemployment rates were so high, as well as the average income for one person was very low. All of these, however, was considered as a problem and was targeted to solve by organizations. However, the healthy food market in Jakarta has witnessed a failure, since demand and supply levels are very low due to the high price of

Compare and contrast two chapters in The Man Who Mistook his Wife - University - Essay

1114 words - 5 pages literatures, patients’ life condition can be improved. He was able to accurately diagnose the disease for the patients and then conducted the treatment process accordingly with the help of medical literatures. Although disease diagnosed for Jimmie and Mr. MacGregor differed, Doctor Sacks was still able to accurately determine their disease. When he first met Jimmie in Home for the Aged, Jimmie could not remember he had met him after 2 minutes

"discuss one or more biases in thinking and decision making" - 22 MARKS - DCGS - Psychology Essay

1198 words - 5 pages Hannah Moran 6D1 Discuss one or more biases in thinking and/or decision making. [22] Bias refers to the disproportionate weight in favour of or against one thing. Psychologists have studies a range of cognitive biases in order to determine their roles within thinking and decision making. Cognitive bias specifically is an error in thinking that affects the decisions and judgments that people make. Thinking and decision making are both closely

Similar Papers

Aspirations In Life And The Things That Come With It Bsc English Essay

433 words - 2 pages journey to success. Traveling to California and having the opportunity to be accepted into a major university like UCLA has been my dream as a child. I plan to major in pre-med as an undergraduate. I’ve been inspired to become a dermatologist and assist others with their skin, hair, and nails condition. “We only have what we give.” –Isabel Allende I just don’t plan to give what I have to offer, but I want to leave a legacy for people to remember me

Discuss Idiographic And Nomethetic Approach In Psychology Psychology Essay

1011 words - 5 pages Discuss idiographic and nomothetic approaches in psychology. (16 Marks) The idiographic approach in psychology, derives from the Greek ‘idios’ meaning ‘private and personal’. The idiographic approach attempts to describe the nature of an individual. This approach studies people as unique entities, each with their own subjective experiences, motivations and value. The idiographic approach is associated with methods such as case studies e.g

Gender Roles: Describe The Gender Roles In "A Rose For Emily" And "Papas Waltz" In Their Respective Stories

925 words - 4 pages on the roles deemed accurately for men and women. In "A Rose for Emily," we see the effects of socially given gender roles for a women along with the same social perception upon the male adult in the poem "My Papa's Waltz."Both show images of gender roles in their respective ways.For many generations status has been the envy and the demise of many people. William Faulkner intriguingly depicts status, society, and the role of women in his short

Classical Music In The Renassaince Era Lcc Classical Music And Its Causes

983 words - 4 pages be introduced to classical music, composers, and to its history, but not necessarily to the culture it can create in their lives. Therefore, in today’s society, classical music has become a less traditional art form. Families today no longer enforce the learning and listening of classical music as part of their culture. As a result of this, this is causing classical music to lose its viability of being a recognizable art form in today’s society