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Discuss The Hormones In Plants And Their Actions. (Auxin, Gibberellin, Cytokinin, Abscisic Acid, Ethylene)

463 words - 2 pages

Chemical messengers that are produced in one part of an organism are hormones. Plant hormones differ from animal hormones because they don't maintain homeostasis and there are no endocrine organs that produce hormones. When plants respond to stimuli it's controlled by hormones. There are five major hormones: Auxin, Gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, and ethylene.Auxin affects meristematic growth, cell elongation in shoots, cell division, growth of lateral buds, production of xylem, development of fruits, and can help produce ethylene. Auxin causes the root to grow downward and shoot to grow upward. It's responsible for the bending of ...view middle of the document...

It can also help to fix problems with faulty, odd plants. This hormone helps the development leaves, sexual flowering plants and helps differentiate phloem tissue. Also it can stimulate production of auxin, as well as make plants more responsive to auxin treatment.Another hormone is cytokinin, which stimulates cell division. Cytokinin is involved in growth and production of fruits and seeds. It also prevents against dormancy and slows the aging of cut leaves or fruit.The fourth main hormone is abscisic acid. Abscisic acid helps plants with environmental conditions. It's produced in mature leaves and can stop the apical meristem from dividing. Abscisic acid keeps seeds dormant until it is overcome by a stimulatory hormone. It promotes embryo growth and storage of proteins making the seed better prepared for after germination.The final hormone is ethylene. Ethylene is the only hormone that is gas. Ethylene affects cell plants like auxin. When auxin exceeds a certain level, it stimulates the production of ethylene. Ethylene helps with plant senescence and ripening of fruits. It can stimulate enzymes and convert starch and acids to sugar in fruit or soften fruit by breaking down the cell wall. If too much ethylene is produced, the fruit will ripen and go bad. Ethylene can be used in overseas shipment of fruit. After the fruit is shipped it can be applied to ripen them. Ethylene can also help plants make enzymes. An example of this would be chitinase, which defends plants against fungi by breaking down chiten in fungal walls.

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