A Consultancy Report with Recommendations
This report will focus on the critical discussion of risk factors within an office environment and their impact on human error. These risk factors may contribute to a higher attrition rate and include: temperature, illumination, overtime, ambient noise, and organisational space. Furthermore, each risk factor will be coupled with recommendations for organisations to utilise.
Human error is 'an action which fails to produce the expected result and which therefore leads to an unwanted consequence' (p. 67). Human operations can be subdivided into three categories: 'skill-based', 'rule-based', and 'knowledge-based'. They differ in terms of cognitive complexity; skill-based operations require behaviours such as being highly practiced and well-developed. Rule-based operations require behaviours based on a set of appropriate rules given. Knowledge-based operations can be seen in employees given no guidance on how to handle unfamiliar situations, leading to improvisation and the use of first principles to seek a resolution. The latter requires the highest level of cognitive complexity as it can lead to errors such as using incorrect information or taking inappropriate/incorrect actions. . These categories led to the construction of the Generic Error Modelling System, which contains four different types of errors: slips, lapses, violations (deliberate actions), and mistakes (deliberate or non-deliberate). Errors are generally caused by the following psychical, psychological, and ergonomic risk factors: time shortages, stress, lack of training, poor human-system interfaces, and task boredom. These factors can cause human errors in employees' performance and, therefore should be considered by organisations. [1: Hollnagel (1993). Human Reliability Analysis. Context and Control, Academic Press (London). ] [2: Rasmussen, J. (1983). Skill, Rules and Knowledge: Signals, Signs and Symbols, and Other Distinctions in Human Performance Models. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 13, 257-266. ] [3: Reason, J. T. (1990). Human Error. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] [4: Salminen, S. , & Tallberg, T. (1996). Human errors in fatal and serious occupational accidents in Finland. Ergonomics, 39(7), 980-988. ] [5: Reason, J. T. (1987). Generic Error-Modelling System (GEMS): A Cognitive Framework for Locating Human Error Forms. In, J. Rasmussen K. Duncan and J. Leplat (Eds) New Technology and Human Error. London: Wiley. ] [6: Swain, A. D. & Guttmann, H. E. (1983). Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Powerplant Operations. Sandia National Laboratories, Washington DC: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ] Potential risk factors affecting human performance within the work environment.
The core temperature of the human body is approximately 37C and should not exceed this [[endnoteRef:7]]. There are six factors that can be used to maintain the c...