The effect of antacids on the Ph of acidic substances.
Indigestion is an irritation of discomfort in the upper abdomen (dyspepsia) or a burning pain behind the breast bone (heartburn). Dyspepsia and Heartburn may occur on their own or together. There isn’t one cause for ingestion, indigestion can be caused by many things. Lifestyle is a big factor of indigestion, drinking to much caffeine or consuming too many fatty, greasy or spicy foods may cause indigestion. Also overeating or eating to fast may trigger indigestion to happen. Other lifestyle issues that can cause indigestion are: stress and emotional trauma, smoking and nervousness, medication like antibiotics and pain killers. There are also triggers however these are not lifestyle based but rather medical conditions for example Pancreas inflammation, Ulcers, Gallstones, Stomach Cancer, Pregnancy, Stomach Infections and food poisoning, Gastro oesophageal reflux disease aka G.E.R.D (condition where oesophagus becomes irritated of inflamed because of acid baking up from the stomach), Acid irritates the oesophagus or duodenum. There are many symptoms that indigestion causes some are more common than others. Some common symptoms are; early fulness during a meal, uncomfortable fulness after a meal, pain in upper abdomen and burning in upper abdomen. There are also some dangerous uncommon symptoms that come with indigestion; Nausea, Vomiting, Bloating, Belching, Heartburn, Weight loss, Jaundice (yellowing of the skin or whitening of the eyes), Gerd (gastroesophageal reflux diseases) and gastritis. Indigestion is a very common illness however there are uncommon types of indigestion which can affect many people’s lives. People that have uncommon types of indigestion may have to avoid certain types of foods and drinks for example caffeine and chocolate.
Antacids are a type of medicinal substance used to neutralise stomach acids. These antacids can relive indigestion symptom’s and acid reflux symptoms. There are many different types of bases used within antacids however the most common are: Hydroxides, Carbonates and Bicarbonates. Most tablets use magnesium, calcium and aluminium. Antacids have been around for many years. The first known antacid was founded by the Sumerians. It contained a mixture of milk, peppermint and sodium carbonate. Sodium carbonate is the active ingredient found within this antacid. The Sumerians at the time where experimenting with a salty ash extracted from certain plants and found out that this mixture relived certain stomach pains. There are many risks in using antacids. Antacids containing aluminium of calcium may cause constipation. In some rare cause the calcium in certain antacids may cause kidney stones. Some brands that use magnesium may cause diarrhea. On very rare cases over consumption of antacids may cause osteoporosis. If you have kidney disease, high blood pressure, or heart disease you may want to consult a doctor before using antacids. There are many active ingredients to calcium carbonate. The 4 most popular are: calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide. There are many physical properties of antacids. Ant acids are a white powder that is usually tasteless or odour less. Antacids are insoluble in water and ethanol also ant acids are stable in air. The chemical properties of antacids are that when it reacts with hydrochloric acid it produces the biproduct of calcium chloride and water (2HCI + CaCO^3 = CaCL^2 + H^2O + CO^2). This also means that antacids have the ability to neutralise our stomach acid. When an antacid comes in contact with stomach acid it neutralises the acid within the stomach. This reaction is called a neutralisation reaction. For example, 2HCI + CaCO^3 = CaCL^2 + H^2O + CO^2.
Antacids may work well but this doesn’t mean there isn’t a future for antacids. Scientists have found newer chemicals that are more effective and work faster. Also, a new research paper has found that nanobots can help the body fight indigestion however this technology is far from our reach. The most impressive finding is that certain antacids may help cure cancer this was found out by scientists at ecancer.
To determine the effect of antacids on the Ph of acidic substances.
1. If an acid is mixed with a base, then the Ph’s will come close to neutral because this is a neutralisation reaction
2. If a strong acid is mixed with a strong base the substance will become neutral however if strong acid is mixed with a weak base the substance will come closer to the pH of 7
· Mortar and Pestle
· Universal Indicator
· 2M Hydrochloric Acid
· 0.1M Hydrochloric Acid
· Nancy’s Antacid Home Remedy
· Dewitt’s antacid Powder
· 2x Mylanta
· Stirring Rod
· Test tubes
· Test tube rack
· Be careful not to snap the pestle whilst grinding the Mylanta
· Universal indicator will stain fabrics easily
· Do not smell or drink the substances
· Be wary not to touch the 2M hydrochloric acid as it is corrosive
· Be carful with the antacids
· Test tubes may shatter
· Metal Spatula has sharp edges and may cut the skin
· Concentration of acids
· Types of antacids
· Amount of Antacid
· Amount of Acid
· Same Indicator
· Same amount of Indicator
· Same size test tubes
· Same day
· Same environmental conditions
1. Crush the Mylanta into a fine powder using a mortar and pestle
2. Put test tubes into a test tube rack
3. Put a selected chemical into a test tube
4. Add 4 drops of universal pH indicator
5. Compare the colour of the substance to the universal pH colour indicator
6. Write down the result into a book
7. Repeat from step 3 for all the other chemicals
8. Put the three antacids in separate test tubes
9. Pour 2ml of a selected acid into each test tube with the antacid
10. Add 4 drops of universal indicator
11. Compare colour of the substance to the pH colour indicator
12. Repeat from step 8 for the other acid
When an acid reacts to an antacid this brings the pH to closer to neutral. This infestation showed the effectiveness of antacids on acid substances. The experiment produced many interesting results. The group predicted that the 2M hydrochloric acid would have a massive difference compared to the 0.1M hydrochloric acid however the results from the experiment showed differently. All the antacids except for the home remedy had the same results with both the acids. The home remedy had some discrepancies as the other antacids had the same result with both hydrochloric acids however the Home Remedy didn’t. This may be caused by unfair testing in the within the experiment or just be the results. From this experiment it is seen that if an acid is mixed with a base then the substance will become neutral because of the neutralisation reaction however if the acid is stronger then the base the substance will come closer to neutral. The 0.1M hydrochloric didn’t have a visible reaction to any of the antacids however the 2M hydrochloric acid did. The substance bubbled up and created a vapour. This reaction only happened to the De Witt’s ant acid and the home remedy not Mylanta. This reaction is called a neutralisation reaction. When the neutralisation happened, the reaction created two biproducts. To see this, it is easy to use a chemical formula; NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + CO2 + H2O for De Witt’s and Home Remedy or Mg + 2HCl --> MgCl2 + H2 for Mylanta.
The experiment was done in a somewhat fair condition. There are many improvements that could be done to this experiment. The group put an equal amount of acid into the test tube however they didn’t put an equal amount of antacid. The group also didn’t let the wait for the antacids and acids to properly mix together. When the group measured the antacids, they didn’t weigh the acids but rather estimated with each scoop. The group also reused the same test tubes which may have left residue behind from the last experiments. There are many limitations to this experiment the first being time. The group didn’t have much time to let the acids react to the antacids. According to the Mylanta website it takes at least one hour for the results to have shown. If the experiment was to be performed again it would be better if the group used different test tubes and let the chemicals set before measuring the pH. Also, performing the experiments more than once would be better for providing more accurate results. According to the De Witts website the powder provides instant relief. This is true as the chemical reaction with the 2M hydrochloric acid happened within a few milliseconds.
The experiment yielded some very interesting results. By analysing the results, it is seen that the first hypothesis is true however this is not the same for the second hypothesis. The results showed the 2 acids didn’t have a difference.
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