Keep emergency numbers posted at the phone along with your address. 911 service is
available in most areas. If phones are not working, go to a neighbor that has emergency
Cell phone, radio, messenger, or evacuate. Signal fires and sounds are a last resort if you
cannot evacuate. Be sure to leave a map and schedule at home to trigger an automatic rescue
Powered craft should be equipped with a marine band radio tuned to the emergency channel .
Flares and smoke bombs can be carried on any boat but must be used with caution. A distress
flag orange with a black dot and a black square or signal mirror may be useful over short
the process of sorting victims, as of a battle or disaster, to determine medical priority in order to
increase the number of survivors; the determination of priorities for action in an emergency.
Treat all blood as if it were contaminated with blood borne pathogens. Thoroughly wash your
hands with soap and water before and after treating a sick or injured person. Never use your
bare hands to stop bleeding. Use a protective barrier, preferably nonlatex disposable gloves (a
new, unused plastic food storage bag will work in a pinch). Safely discard all soiled bandages,
dressings, and other used first aid items by putting them in a double bag until they can be
disposed of properly in a receptacle for bio-hazards
Lay the victim down and elevate legs. Call 911. Keep warm, calm and comfortable. Monitor
breathing as CPR may be required before help arrives. Transport only if no EMS is available.
Under no circumstances should the patient attempt to drive to the hospital.
Rescue breathing is used if the victim does not begin breathing when the airway is opened. It
also helps warm a severely hypothermic person who is breathing very slowly. Chest
compressions should only be used when there are no signs of circulation: coughing, moving,
pulse, skin color takes more than 2 seconds to return after finger pressure is removed.
Direct pressure -- place a hand firmly over the wound and press hard
Elevation -- if on an extremity, lift the limb over the person's heart
Pressure point -- place directed pressure at one of the "pressure points". On the arm, this is
between the bicep and tricep on the upper arm (a pulse is normally palpable) and on the leg
midway down the thigh and between the two leg muscles.
Tourniquet -- (For use in emergencies only) tie a cravat, rope or belt above the wound as tight
as possible, in order to completely cut off circulation to the injured area. The most typical
method of tying it is a simple overhand knot, held tight while a pencil or stick is placed on top of
the middle of the knot. Another overhand knot is tied, and the pencil or stick can be twisted to
tighten the knot. Cutting off circulation for extended periods can lead to the amputation of the
limb, so this must not be used unless all other methods have been tried and there is no hope for
help in the near future. The time should...