Essay Outlines - Chapter 24
By the end of 19th century, new industrial world had led to emergence of mass society in which
concerns of majority of population (lower classes) were central. More & more people lived in
cities; in early 1850s, urban dwellers made up about 40% of the English population, 15% of the
French, 10% of Prussian population (largest German State), & 5% of Russian population; by
1890, urban dwellers had increased to 60% in England, 25% in France, 30% in Prussia, & 10%
in Russia. Size of cities also grew, especially in industrialized countries; between 1800 & 1900,
population in London grew from 960k to 6.5 million.
- Treatment of sewage was improved by building mammoth underground pipes that
carried raw sewage far from the city for disposal. Frankfurt, Germany, began its program
for sewers with lengthy public campaign featuring slogan, "from the toilet to the river in
half an hour."
- Gas heaters in 1860s, & later electric heaters, made regular hot baths available to many
- Essential to public health, modern European cities ability to bring in clean water & to
expel sewage; need for fresh water was met by system of dams & reservoirs that stored
the water & by aqueducts & tunnels that carried it from countryside to the city & into
- Following reformers' advice, city governments created boards of health to improve
quality of housing; city medical officers & building inspectors now inspected dwellings for
public health hazards; new building regulations required running water & internal drainage
systems for all new buildings.
Urban populations grew quickly due to the vast migration to cities from rural areas; lack of jobs
& lack of land drove people from countryside to the city to find jobs. Later in the century, central
urban areas were home to the working population, while the well-to-do often moved to large
suburban homes. Cities also grew faster in 2nd half of 19th century because living conditions
improved; in the 1840s, a number of urban reformers had pointed to filthy living conditions as
chief cause of deadly epidemic diseases in the cities.
In 1800, women were mainly defined by family & household roles; they remained legally inferior
& economically dependent upon men; in the course of the 19th century, women struggled to
change their status.The period of the mid-nineteenth century until the dawn of the twentieth
century witnessed a patriarchal male society and female dependence, with women struggling to
attain social equality. Women were solely controlled by the society crafted by men and expected
to act as a feminine ideal of that period.
- The biological role of women, ‘to give birth to and take care of offspring’, was considered
to be the main and only job of women. Women were not allowed to do labor-intensive
work, as they were considered to be physically weak. While men were exposed to
diverse career opportunities,...