Biology Vocabulary Sheet
Adenine: a compound that is one of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids. A purine
derivative, it is paired with thymine in double-stranded DNA.
Anaphase: the stage of meiotic or mitotic cell division in which the chromosomes move
away from one another to opposite poles of the spindle and the fourth stage in Mitosis.
Benign: a benign tumor is a tumor that does not invade its surrounding tissue or spread
around the body.
Cancer Screening: cancer screening aims to detect cancer before symptoms appear.
This may involve blood tests, urine tests, other tests, or medical imaging.
Cell: the cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living
Cell Cycle: the cycle of growth and asexual reproduction of a cell, consisting of
interphase followed in actively dividing cells by prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and
Cell Differentiation: the process by which a cell becomes specialized in order to
perform a specific function, as in the case of a liver cell, a blood cell, or a neuron.
Cell Division: the division of a cell into two daughter cells with the same genetic
Cell Plate: a plate that develops at the midpoint between the two groups of
chromosomes in a dividing cell and that is involved in forming the wall between the two
new daughter cells.
Cell Specialization: the process by which generic cells change into specific cells meant
to do certain tasks within the body.
Chromosome: in the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into
thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA
tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.
Circulatory System: the system in the body by which blood and lymph are circulated.
The parts of the circulatory system include the heart, along with all the arteries, veins,
Cloning: is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical
individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants
Cytokinesis: is the part of the cell division process during which the cytoplasm of a
single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells.
Cytoplasm: is that part of the cell between the cell membrane and the nuclear envelope.
It is the jelly-like substance in a cell that contains the cytosol, organelles, and inclusions,
but not including the nucleus.
Cytosine: a compound found in living tissue as a constituent base of nucleic acids. It is
paired with guanine in double-stranded DNA.
Digestive System: the system by which ingested food is acted upon by physical and
chemical means to provide the body with absorbable nutrients and to excrete waste
DNA: is a molecule that contains the instructions an organism needs to develop, live
DNA replication: DNA replication is the process by which a double-stranded DNA
molecule is copied to produce ...