Euler's Zeta Function Approximation Johns Hopkins, Introduction To Abstract Mathematics Presentation

724 words - 3 pages

An Interesting Equality for Sum of Reciprocals of the Squares
∑∞
k=1 1/k
2
= pi2/6
March 28, 2007
Overview
Some History about the Sum
Review: Maclaurin Series
Euler’s “Proof”
Expanding sin−1 x (or arcsinx)
Choe’s Proof
Sources for Further Reading
Some History about the Sum
Let I denote the sum


k=1
1/k2
Jakob Bernoulli (1654–1705) proved that I < 2. Although he and
his brother (Johann) tried very hard, they were not able to find the
exact value of I
Jakob said, “if anybody has discovered the answer that makes us
feel so defeated, please contact us, we will be very grateful.”
Leonard Euler (1707–1783) gave a “proof” that I = pi2/6 in 1734
In fact, he continued to produce the sum of reciprocals of the
positive even powers
Here, we will look at an alternative proof by Boo Rim Choe in 1987
Maclaurin Series
Theorem (Maclaurin Series)
The function, f(x), can be expressed by
f(x) = f(0) + f ′(0)x +
f ′′(0)
2!
x2 + · · · + f
(k)(0)
k!
xk + · · ·
How to prove?
Given f(x), can we find its constant term?
Can we find the coefficient of its x term?
In general, what should be the coefficient of its xk term?
Euler’s Proof
Euler observed that the function
sinx
has roots at x = 0,±pi,±2pi,±3pi, . . .
Next, he observed that the infinite product
x
(
1− x
2
(pi)2
)(
1− x
2
(2pi)2
)(
1− x
2
(3pi)2
)
· · ·
also has roots at x = 0,±pi,±2pi,±3pi, . . .
Euler believed that these two functions are equivalent
By Maclaurin series on sinx, we find that the coefficient of the x3
term = −1/6
On the other hand, for the infinite product, the coefficient of the x3
term = −I/pi2 = −∑∞
k=1
1/(k2pi2)
Thus, Euler concluded that I = pi2/6
Expanding Inverse of Sine (1)
Fact
For |x| < 1, ∫
1√
1−...

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