Anatomy, Physiology and Psychology of health
“Using a case with which you are familiar, explain how an illness, disease or trauma can cause symptoms within body systems other than the system primarily affected and how this may affect the psycho social well-being of the service user.”
In this essay I will explain how a stroke impacts the body and its systems, in detail the symptoms that the patient may endure. I will also discuss the changes on social well being of the patient, also what psychological and physical processes they may face when having to deal with a debilitating condition. I will also suggest what physiological factor may occur to not only the patient but also their relatives and relationships. Within this essay I will be using a case study who I will refer to as Bill, I will do this to respect confidentiality; this is important for university standards Data Protection Act (1998) as well as the nursing code of practice (Department of Health, 2003).
A stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of your brain is irrerupted. Blood transfers vital oxygen and nutrients to your brain. If this was not to happen the blood your brain cells can be damaged and die, depending on where it occurs in the brain it can have different effects on the body. The two different types of strokes are Ischemic and haemorrhagic Stroke. An ischemic stroke happens if the arteries that supply oxygen rich blood to the brain become cut off. Blood clots commonly cause the blockages that lead to an ischemic strokes. (Bornstein, 2009)
There are two different types of ischemic stroke thrombotic and embolic. The thrombotic stroke happens when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in an artery that carries the blood to the brain.
An embolic stroke is where a blood clot or fatty substance travels through the /bloodstream to an artery in the brain. Although both types of ischemic stroke happens when a blood clot blocks oxygen rich blood being supplied to a the brain. (
Finally a hemorrhagic stroke happens when an artery in the brain exposes blood or ruptures (bursts). The pressure from this damages the brain cells. The two types of hemorrhagic stroke are intracerebral and subarachnoid. The intracerebral stroke happens when a blood vessel inside the brain spills out blood or bursts. A subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs when a blood vessel on the surface of the brain leaks blood or ruptures, covering the brain with blood and causing pressure in the skull. Although all types of Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when the burst blood causes swelling of the brain causing increased pressure in the skull. This swelling and pressure damages to the tissues and cells in the brain (Prema, 2002). Finally a transient ischaemic attack commonly called a ‘mini stroke’ although the same thing occurs in a stroke, the symptoms only last for a shorter peroid of time (no longer than twenty four hours). This happens, as the blockage that irrupts the blood passing to the brain is temporary.
A stroke happens when...