Explain 'natural Moral Law' Essay

710 words - 3 pages

Natural Law can be traced back into the Ancient Greek and Roman worlds. In Sophocles' play 'Antigone', Natural Law is very apparent throughout and the writings of the Greek Philosopher; Aristotle. In his works - 'Nicomachean Ethics' - he wrote;"The natural is that which is everywhere, is equally valid, and depends not upon being or not being received...that which is natural is unchangeable, and has the same power everywhere.'The Ancient Stoics emphasised the importance of Logos, or rationality, that governs the world and sees human nature as one natural order. They considered natural law as a law of 'right reason'. In his letter to the Romans, St Paul wrote about a law that is 'written in the hearts' of Gentiles. It is therefore clear that throughout the ancient world, although there is differing terminology, there seems to have been a consensus over the existence of a natural moral law, which dictated the rightness or wrongness of an action that ...view middle of the document...

This was to pursue good and avoid evil. For Aquinas, both the intention and the act are important, this is because his theory is based on a mainly deontological view. The only end that he values is God as He is intrinsically good. He believed that acts are intrinsically good or bad because when human beings act in accordance with their ultimate purpose, God is glorified. Aquinas followed the line of thought that human beings are intelligent and therefore should be able to direct him or herself, this therefore meaning that they can take responsibility for knowing and doing what God intends for them.Whether or not an act leads towards God depends on whether it fits the purpose that humans were made for. For Thomas Aquinas, the main purpose of human life is to preserve the self and the innocent, to reproduce, worship God, acquire knowledge and live in ordered society.. He names these the primary precepts - acts that are in accordance with these precepts are good and those, which do not, are bad. He also names them the secondary precepts - which are rulings about things that we should or should not do because they uphold a primary precept.The theory of Natural Law as put forward by Aquinas, is based upon the religious view that God created the world, establishing in it a sense of order and purpose, which is a direct representation of His will. In the natural law approach to ethics, the action itself can either be natural or unnatural, and is judged on that basis. It does not depend for its moral law justification upon any results. Therefore, according to natural law, an action can be deemed good in itself, even if it brings about suffering.In conclusion, Natural Moral Law enables to establish rules in order to structure a community. It gives a concrete reason to be moral and a firm basis from which to refuse to step over moral boundaries. It provides justification and support for certain core ideas and it judges actions, irrespective of consequences. Natural Moral Law isn't just simply a set of rules, but a way of living. It gives guidance on everyday questions on how to live and links them to the fundamental principles of life. It provides a complete system of moral living in step with what it is to be human.


To what extent is natural law useful in making moral decisions. - barr beacon school - essay

1509 words - 7 pages causes us to do bad. We have to follow the right use of reason to make the right decision. It can be argued that this is a confusing idea as Cicero does not explicitly state how one can differentiate between the apparent good and the right good. In agreement with Aquinas and Cicero the fact that natural law uses practical reason to explain moral decision making considers it to be common sense which is knowable by all which further integrates the idea

What Is The Natural Law? What Are Its Principles? How Does It Relate To Positive Laws?

1992 words - 8 pages those fundamental moral principles traditionally known as Natural Law. The attraction to such a notion of Natural law to a Christian political philosopher is obvious; since Natural Law can be understood as the law of God, it is the Church and not the State which can speak on the subject with authority; and once the Church is recognized as the ultimate arbiter as to what is just and unjust, its superiority over the state, and its authority to

Deontological Ethics Chapter 13: The Categorical Imperative Immanuel Kant - Ethics - Philosophy

611 words - 3 pages Only a rational being can have a will. 4. TRUE Kant thinks that all rational beings necessarily desire happiness. 5. TRUE A morally valid principle is one that can serve as a universal law, applicable to all at any time or in any place. 6. FALSE Kant believes that suicide is morally justifiable in certain circumstances. 7. TRUE Kant thinks we have a moral duty to cultivate our natural talents. 8. TRUE According to Kant, the moral worth of an

Assignment On Rhetoric In Language

1122 words - 5 pages Free pursuit of one's self-interest.Choosing a specific way to live is not a black and white issue, and we can see this fact present in all of Socrates' dialectic opponents. When he faces off against Gorgias,the two commence their war of words by exploring the moral foundations of law and society, but what is really at stake is what is meant to live a good life. Socrates preaches a life of reflection; he believes that one should examine every action to see

Analysis of James Rachels five principles of cultural relativism - University of California, Berkeley - Essay

1025 words - 5 pages did I have the authority to determine if their relationship was natural? Cultural relativism tries to open up the narrow minded views of individuals by suggesting that individual human beliefs should be understood by others in terms of that individual’s culture. Although cultural relativism provides individuals an open-mindedness for different moral codes, accepting the idea wholeheartedly takes away freedom of choice and limits further progress

Ethical Theories - Utilitarianism, Deontology Ethics and Virtue Ethics - Ethics - Essay

3689 words - 15 pages will like to level three main criticisms against Deontology Ethics; namely, Kant diminishes the utilisation of emotions to make moral decisions, the sustenance of universal law is only effective if everyone adheres to the law and, Kant commits a natural fallacy when he alters ‘is’ to an ‘ought’. From the above paragraph, I noted that Kant postulates that the motive of duty is the only motive that has imbued in it a sense of moral worth. When

What Are The Main Moral Quandaries In Relation To Moral Relativism? Especially Given Increasing Globalisation, Is Moral Relativism A Suitable Solution To Moral Conflicts Between Cultures?

2101 words - 9 pages Let me begin with a definition of 'moral relativism'. It is the acceptance that there are no standards of what is right or wrong that apply to all people at all times in history. For example, the ability for one group to pass judgment on any situation, when the same situation would be treated differently by another group. Thus showing that different persons have different perspectives on what is morally right or wrong. Moral relativists hold

Cultural Relativism: Is Truth Defined By Our Culture Or Our Culture By Truth?

1655 words - 7 pages worship their god using a full orchestra and robed choir, while another chooses to simply have a piano and a singer. Do these churches have different moral principles, or are they merely choosing different expressions of worship? With Pojman's example of the practice of a harsh euthanasia by the Eskimos, he goes further to explain that it is not the moral principle that causes the Eskimos to leave their elderly to starve, but the harsh environment. In

professional ethics case 2 study assignment 1 - University of Waterloo, PHIL333 - assignment

1100 words - 5 pages chooses for an action is what makes them morally good or bad. According to him, acting with the intention of being dutiful –that is from motive itself is what makes an action morally right. As such acting with a morally good intention, makes a person morally good. According to Kant, an intention is morally good if the motive is duty itself, meaning respect for the moral law. He uses the principle of the categorical imperative to determine what the

Laudato Si: On Care for Our Common Home - religion 100 - research paper

1765 words - 8 pages new social challenges with regard to science and technology… could advance law and regulation and more generally the governance of risks in our society.” 4 Pope Francis references climate change, waste, genetic manipulation and biodiversity.5 His aim is to gain his audience’s support in acknowledging man’s direct impact on nature and provide ways of improving all life on our planet. 1Zhang, X. J. “How St. Francis influenced Pope Francis's

What Is A Juvenile Delequient

833 words - 4 pages children who were left without any adult supervision turned feral and uncivilized. They had no regard for law because they had no parents constantly directing their moral course. The influence of a parent in the shaping and developing of a child's moral sense, their ability to tell right from wrong, is undeniable. This phrase "who but a parent is an adult" is awkward - rephrase. The rest of the sentence is good. Who but a parent is an adult who is

Christianity and World Religions

399 words - 2 pages propounded by theologian Karl Rahner. Rahner points to the transcendental presence of God, or God's presence in all human hearts, that is manifested through natural human restlessness to open to the infinite or God. This "natural openness to God" independent of whether a person knows the word or concept of God is seen through the human yearning for truth and goodness (Imperato 20). Thus any moral decision at the expense of one's status or pleasure

The Old Man With Enormous Wings (Literary Analysis)

978 words - 4 pages benefit from the moral of the story. Unlike most fiction or fantasy stories, "A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings" has strong moral goal. This goal is to help create a better human society that is not cruel, ignorant, or unable to explain events.Throughout the story Gabriel shows how humans treat others inhumanely just because they are different. This can remind one of the racism that occurred in the United States during the 1930s until the 1960s

Examine The Controversy That Surrounds The Question Of What Judges Are Doing When They Are Deciding Cases

3717 words - 15 pages Free principles not just rules. Judicial decision making is a very controversial issue in jurisprudence and there are many opposing arguments from positivist and natural law perspectives.The significance of Dworkin's attack on conventionalism, in general, and legal positivism, in particular lies in the failure of such theories to provide either a credible account of the process of law-making or a sufficiently strong defence of individual rights. In the case of

Corporate Social Responsibility - York University/SOSC 1340 - Research Paper

2766 words - 12 pages ). Therefore, what can explain the shift from a corporate-regulating mindset to one of salient deregulation? It is evident that the modern American corporations do not suffer from the same regulations as the chartered corporations of the early American history. Nace (2003) claims that the 1886 Santa Clara case, brought up by corporate lawyers right after the passing of the 14th amendment, is the first case in which corporations are referred to as “persons