Explain Putnam's Objection To The Identity Theory. Why Does He Think That Functionalism Improves On The Identity Theory? Is He Right About This?

1116 words - 5 pages

In Hilary Putnam's, "The Nature of Mental States", he deals with the question of whether or not pain is a brain state or "Is the property of having a pain at time t a brain state?" (Putnam). Throughout the article, Putnam goes on to argue that to claim pain as a brain state is not an identity claim. This can only be accurate if the specific pain is a specific brain state, or "being A is being B" (Putnam). He suggests that this is not an empirical reduction, or based on sensory experience, but rather the question can only be answered through knowledge that has been independently justified independently of experience. Putnam comes to conclude that functionalism, any view which analyzes ...view middle of the document...

Property and concept cannot be combined into one idea. Putnam rejects both concept and property as declaring pain X as being identical to brain state Y, and therefore, rejects the identity theory.Furthermore, Putnam argues that pain states are brain states, not by the identity relation, but through functionalism. Functionalism is any analysis which examines something in terms of its causes and effects. In particular, Putnam describes functionalism as a way of understanding the fact that a pain state is a brain state. He continues:. . . any organism (not just a mammal) is in pain if and only if (a) it possessesa brain suitable physical-chemical structure; and (b) its brain is in that physical chemical state. This means that the physical-chemical state in question mustbe a possible state of a mammalian brain, a reptile's brain, and/or a mollusc'sbrain. . . At the same time, it must not be a possible state of the brain of anyphysically possible creature that cannot feel pain. It must be nomologicallycertain that it will also be a state of the brain of any extra-terrestrial life thatmay be found that will be capable of feeling pain before we can even entertainthe supposition that it may be pain. (Putnam)For example, when pain is induced upon humans there are say c-fibers firing. These c-fibers allow the brain to send a message to the body part, where the pain is being inflicted and felt through the nervous system, so the human knows that there is pain at that particular moment at that particular spot. Putnam finds it necessary to suppose that this physical-chemical state must be a possible state for all those capable of having the sensation, including alien beings. Let us suppose that Martians exist. These creatures have the ability to feel pain, yet, their brains are structured differently, and instead of having c-fibers to send the message of pain, the Martians contain m-fibers that fire. This is a duplicate functional property of two different brains. Another example would be that of a dining room table. Walking into Seaman's Furniture store, one could easily find hundreds of dining...

Other Essays On Explain Putnam's Objection To The Identity Theory. Why Does He Think That Functionalism Improves On The Identity Theory? Is He Right About This?

Does Organizational Management Theory Have The Answer To Managing Service Organizations And The People That Work There?

3440 words - 14 pages value chain could be a chief source of competitive advantage of every organization who engage in such kind of activity (Carthy, 2001). This is useful especially when promoting the strengths of certain organization.ERG TheoryAs on the development of the needs theory, Clayton Alderfer' ERG Theory emerged during the 1960's. His model is a reaction to Maslow's famous "Hierarchy of Needs". He distinguishes three categories of human needs that have a

Australian National Identity - What does it mean to be an australian. the characteristics of an australian that came out of the 2002 bali bombings

405 words - 2 pages What does it mean to be an Australian?A major event in my lifetime was the Bali bombing where Australia was targeted in an act of terrorism. This event happened on October 12 2002, and at the time it was the first direct act of terrorism against Australians, we were targeted for the reason being that we had helped the United States of America in the pursuit of Osama bin laden in Iraq. This was exposed when an audio cassette was aired from Osama

What does Lenin mean when he says the state is an instrument of class rule - Newcastle, Politics - Essay

544 words - 3 pages What does Lenin mean when he says the state is an instrument of class rule. Unlike Bernstein who believes that the capitalist state will adapt and change, to protect the interests of the working class. Lenin disagrees with his suggestion that it would in theory be possible for the state to put measures in place for this to happen through socialist democratic reform. He thinks that it is the state itself which perpetuates the oppression of the

How much is Macbeth a victim of the forces of evil and what degree does he embrace evil - English - Essay

727 words - 3 pages evil’ in the witches planted the initial seed that led to the foundations of his feelings of fear towards the unknown and his need to reach and reap the rewards. To this extent Macbeth was a victim of circumstances and it may have influenced him greatly, but it does not make him greedy and ambitious. The forces of evil started a chain reaction that ultimately led to the demise of Macbeth, but Macbeth is solely to blame, the continual coercion from

Explain the meaning of 'a Theory of Society'

345 words - 2 pages A theory is a set of ideas that claims to explain how something works. A Sociological theory is, therefore, a set of ideas that claims to explain how society or aspects of society work.'Social theories' as a field of study is particularly difficult to accurately determine or define. As understood, social theories are the systematic study of human society, including the processes of social change and transformation, involving the formulation of

George Lucas - What Themes Does He Deal With?, What Influence Has His Personal Life Had On His Work? And What Is The Significance Of His Work In Today's Society?

1319 words - 6 pages internet sites, I have picked up on some of the main themes that Lucas tries to convey. Lucas deals with the themes of rebellion and good and evil. I have found that evil is a strong factor in all of George Lucas' films. The first being THX1138, this is a story of two people called THX and LUH who live in a futuristic world with an omnipresent, omniscient superpower who watches and controls everybody's every move. This superpower tell all the

Why the concept of democracy is universally valued and essentially contested? - Democratic Theory - Essay

1516 words - 7 pages makes it more acceptable. In terms of procedure, democracy demands that that everyone agrees on the same rules of the game. This is one of the most desirable characteristics of procedural democracy as it respects, protects and promotes human dignity, at least in theory. It does this through conferring rights unto individuals, rights that concern every aspect of human life, hence Dewy (1970: 14) metaphorically describes it as a way of life. This

Wordsworth Said He Had Been 'Fostered Alike By Beauty And By Fear.' Using 3 Episodes From 'The Prelude' Book 1 Show What He Meant By This?

1249 words - 5 pages assonance. He hangs alone but is in the company of the wind and doesn't in this passage seem to mind even though it is uttering he's wrong.Wordsworth goes on to say and end with 'the sky seemed not the sky of earth-and with what motion moved the clouds!' the exclamation mark emphasises his wonder of the difference he feels. This paragraph is easy to imagine due to Wordsworth's good use of alliteration 'motion moved' and assonance that assist in

This Essay Tells About "Julius Ceasar" And How He Came Into Power, Then Lost It

1111 words - 5 pages curule aedile, pontifex maximus, and a praetor. By this time, Caesar was making a name for himself as a political figure. He divorced Pompeia because of her involvement in a scandal with another man, although the man had been acquitted in the law courts. Caesar is reported to have said, "The wife of Caesar must be above suspicion," suggesting that he was so remarkable that anyone associated with him had to be free of any link to scandal. In 61

Rough Draft Of Theory I Think

829 words - 4 pages Why do we use theories in IR?In the social world it is not enough simply to base our account of individual solely on the reasons they give for the actions of the social world is one in which individuals exist within powerful economic, political, social, gender, racial, linguistic, and moral structure. We might be able to describe actions fairly easily (ie Prime Minister Tony Blair said that he supports Bush going to war against Iraq.) but it is

Does Freud’s Theory or Trait Approach best explain personality? - Coventry - Essay

1548 words - 7 pages Does Freud’s Theory or Trait Approach best explain personality? Personality is commonly thought to be characteristics that reflects an individual’s attitude and behaviour. This gives a brief overview of some of the issues that are touched upon regarding personality from empirical psychological research. One definition of personality is ‘a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking that prevails across time and situations and differentiates one

Similar Papers

"The Guilty" This Is About A Lawer Trying To Save An Innocent Boy At Any Cost. The Question Is, Is He Really Innocent?

1591 words - 7 pages very good that you told me. I talked to the prosecutor today and with a boy as young as John they are willing to be very lenient. I think a couple years at a correctional institution was offered," John's dad clenched his fists at his side."A coupla years? He was only defending himself! That black shit had been talking about this group I'm in, it's just a men's club, we just talk, I mean sure sometimes we get crazy but it's mostly talk, those

Nat Turner And The Reasons Behind On Why He Did What He Did Msjc /History Essay On A Historical Figure

625 words - 3 pages a doubt a “freedom fighter,” and although his fight ended in blood, it was necessary at the time to help to end the continuance of such a cruel and inhuman practice. Slavery in itself was much more horrifying than every white citizen he killed that ensued following the rebellion combined. Oates’s assertion that Turner’s rebellion was the first war against slavery is incredibly accurate, except in one sense, one does not need to be African

Oskar Schindler, In The Eyes Of Many, Is A True Hero. This Is A Man Who Wanted To Make A Difference And Do Things That He Thought Was Humane And Rightful

875 words - 4 pages Activity 6: Courage in the Face of InjusticeOskar Schindler, in the eyes of many, is a true hero. This is a man who wanted to make a difference and do things that he thought was humane and rightful. Although Schindler was part of the Nazi Party during the tragic time of World War Two, Schindler saved approximately 1,200 Jewish lives. Oskar Schindler, a single man, saved the most Jews during World War Two and is a hero to the Jewish community. He

It Tells About Odysseus And Why He Is An Epic Hero

550 words - 3 pages Odysseus and his men were trapped in the cave with the Cyclopes. He thought of a plan to get out and made it work. The plan included him attacking the Cyclopes and blinding him, this was definitely courageous. He was courageous enough to put his life in jeopardy so his men and himself could continue on their way home.Odysseus takes pride in himself, which is good. It shows that he'knows he is a good leader and that he knows what he's doing. The