For the extension, I read an empirical research article by Michael Rinat titled Self‐efficacy and future career expectations of at‐risk adolescents: The contribution of a tutoring program. The experiment was conducted in 2018 and aims to reinforce the importance of a mentor as a role model in the lives of at-risk students during adolescence. Specifically, researchers analyzed the role of tutoring and its impact on student’s self-efficacy and their future career expectations. The subjects consisted of 98 students being tutored and 147 college student tutors. Before the program began, each subject completed a questionnaire about self-efficacy, a questionnaire about future-career expectations, and a background questionnaire. After the 8-month program was completed, both students and tutors fill out each questionnaire again. Results show that both students and tutors reported higher levels of social and emotional self-efficacy as well as increased future expectations. Further research could include specific tutoring strategies that help to increase levels of self-efficacy and future expectations.
The research findings touch upon important topics that we have discussed and will discuss in the future. In the first chapter assigned about learning and cognition in chapter 8, the topic of interactions with more advanced individuals is discussed early on. One quote from the textbook that stood out to me was, “Young learners are most likely to construct a productive understanding of the world when adults and other advanced individuals share with them the many concepts, principles, theories, and other cognitive tools that society has developed to explain the physical and psychological aspects of human experience.” This is extremely important as it applies to the idea of mentoring and tutors. At-risk students often have difficulty learning...