1 What kinds of mass media have been used in Campaigns and elections? TV and radio broadcasting, newspapers, billboards, yard signs, and bumper stickers. In recent years, the Internet and the array of social media tools have altered political campaigns in the state (Facebook, tweet, YouTube)
2 Describe the importance of mass media.
The media have played an essential role in Texas politics. Texas is a media state for political campaigning. Texas campaigners must rely more heavily on TV and radio exposure than do candidates in other states. The Internet communicate with voters because of low costs.
3 Discuss about mudsliding campaigning An attempt to discredit one's competitor, opponent, etc. , by malicious or scandalous attacks. Negative campaigning became more important in early 21st century. Changed from Party-centered to Candidate-centered campaigns.
4 Where does the campaigning money come from?
Political action committees (PACs): an organizational device used by corporations, labor unions, and other organizations to raise money for campaign contributions 5 What are functions of Texas Ethics Commission? a state agency that enforces state standards for lobbyists and public officials, including registration of lobbyists and reporting of political campaign contributions.
6 Explain the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 and why the reform has been criticized In 2002, the U. S. Congress passed the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act ; A restriction on corporations' and labor unions' ability to run "electioneering" ads that feature the names or likeness of candidates close to election day. It was an unconstitutional restraint on freedom of speech. Widely criticized by Democratic and by some members of the Republican Party as judicial activism that would give corporations and unions unlimited powers in federal elections.
7 Compare and contrast between McConnell v. FEC (2003) and Citizens United v. FEC (2010) McConnell v. FEC (2003) The U. S. SC upheld the constitutionality of the "soft money" ban.
Citizens United v. FEC (2010)The U. S. SC overturned a provision of the act that banned unlimited independent expenditure made by corporations, unions, and nonprofit organizations in federal elections 8 Explain followings obstacles to voting a Literacy test : This test was designed and administered in ways intended to prevent African Americans and Latinos from voting b Grandfather clause:A provision in which an old rule continues to apply to some existing situations while a new rule will ap...