Stages of Federalism
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government with regional governments in a single political system. There was many stages that came into play to form this type of government style.
During the time period of 1776-1860, America was primarily a rural nation of farmers. Many Americans rarely ever left their home state and many other Americans actually never once stepped foot in another state throughout their whole lifetime. Although ratification of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union on March 1, 1781, did establish the United States of America, personal allegiance was still directed more toward the individual’s home state than to the nation. It was an era of what federalism scholars have called “dual federalism.” This is where states were expected to be the primary instrument of governance in domestic affairs. Dual federalism is also the political theory that two different governments share sovereign power over a certain region or people. The theory works as a type of check to ensure corruption does not impact either government.
However, even before the Constitution’s ratification, the federal government found ways to provide state and local government’s assistance to encourage them to pursue national policy objectives. Congress did not have the power to collect taxes during this time period. They relied heavily on state donation to fund the government. The Land Ordinance was founded in 1785, generated revenue for the government by authorizing the sale of land acquired from Great Britain at the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War. The Ordinance also required every new township incorporated in those lands, called the Ohio Country, to be subdivided into 36 lots, the United Stated gained 29 of those lots. Congress gained power to collect and lay taxes in 1786. This was a huge move for congress, and all of this came into effect after dual federalism was issued as a government power. The fourteenth amendment was one thing that came out of dual federalism. The fourteenth amendment introduced 3 clauses, the privileges and immunities clause, the due process clause, and the equal protection clause. The economy became a national, industrialized economy. This is known as industrialism. The economy near the beginning of the 20th century had a stronger regulatory role. The Great Depression occurred in 1929 when the stock market crashed. The national government had to grow dramatically, which consequently took power away from the states.
The conservative coalition actively sought concessions to ensure that any new federal programs, including any new grants to state and local governments, respected state rights. As a result, the grant-in-aid programs adopted during this time period tended to be in policy areas where state and local governments were already active. These governments were located in areas such as education, health care, and highway construction,...